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(b Salzburg, Sept 13, 1761; d Vienna, Dec 1, 1841). Austrian composer. He was the son of Johann Jacob Freystädtler (1723–87, composer, choirmaster and ‘Totensänger’ of St Sebastians-Kirche). After serving as a choirboy in the fürstliches Kapellhaus, Freystädtler studied the organ with Franz Ignaz Lipp, and in 1777 entered the Kapelle of St Peter, where he was organist until September 1782. He then went to Munich as a piano teacher; he ran up debts, as he had done in Salzburg, and was imprisoned. On 13 May 1786 he arrived in Vienna, where he studied counterpoint with Mozart. Until 1961 it was thought that his book of studies ( A-Sm ) was Mozart’s own material from his studies with his father Leopold. Mozart employed his pupil as a copyist, and Freystädtler copied the Piano Concerto in B♭ k456 and replaced six pages of the autograph score of the String Quintet in G minor ...

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(Walburga Ignatia)

Member of Mozart family

(b Salzburg, 30/July 31, 1751; d Salzburg, Oct 29, 1829). Pianist, daughter of (1) Leopold Mozart. She received her first music lessons from her father in 1758; in 1764 Leopold considered her ‘one of the most skilful pianists in Europe’ (letter of 8 June). From 1762 to 1767 Nannerl travelled with her family on various musical tours; from 1769 onwards she was no longer permitted to show her artistic talent on travels with her brother, as she had reached a marriageable age. While Wolfgang triumphed as a composer and virtuoso abroad, she remained with her mother in Salzburg. Wolfgang praised her compositions and encouraged her to continue composing, but her father never mentioned her work, and none of it survives. Whereas Mozart disobeyed his father and married a woman of his choice, Nannerl, who was an avid reader and theatre-goer, obviously adopted the prescriptive and pedagogical literature of the late Enlightenment and lived as the epitome of contemporary ideas of femininity (piety, self-sacrifice, propriety, modesty). She apparently renounced her love for the captain and private tutor Franz d'Ippold and in accordance with her father's wishes married Johann Baptist von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg (...

Article

Horst Walter

Austrian family of music copyists and dancers.

(b ?Kiesling, Silesia, 1738/9; d Eszterháza, Oct 26, 1782). Prince Nikolaus Esterházy’s music copyist from August 1764 to October 1782. He was a friend of Haydn, who witnessed his marriage (1766) to Eva Maria Köstler (d 1806) and was godfather to all the children of this marriage. Joseph made fewer copies of Haydn’s works than his son (2) Johann Elssler, but they are a no less valuable part of the source tradition of Haydn’s music; they occur particularly in the Esterházy collection at Budapest, and in Vienna, Berlin, Frankfurt and St Florian (von Zahn, 1988, pp.140ff). The magnificent manuscript volumes of baryton trios dedicated to Prince Esterházy deserve special mention, as does Joseph Elssler’s role in the preparation of Haydn’s ‘Entwurf-Katalog’ (EK), which was begun about 1765 (facsimile in Larsen, 1941; further specimens in Landon, ...

Article

Rudolph Angermüller

revised by William Stafford

( b Haderslev, Jan 22, 1761; d Salzburg, March 24, 1826). Danish diplomat and music historian . After academic studies (1778–81) he became authorized agent of the General Post Office in Copenhagen in 1781. He entered the diplomatic service in 1792, and was assigned to Vienna as Danish chargé d’affaires in 1793. Four years later he befriended Mozart's widow Constanze, whom he assisted in selling and publishing Mozart's scores; he married her in 1809, in Pressburg (now Bratislava) Cathedral, proving a devoted husband and father to Mozart's two sons. After serving for ten years in Copenhagen he retired in 1820 to Salzburg, where he began collecting materials (now in A-Sm ) for his Biographie W.A. Mozarts: nach Originalbriefen, Sammlungen alles über ihn Geschriebenen, mit vielen neuen Beylagen, Steindrucken, Musikblättern und einem Facsimile (Leipzig, 1828 [recte 1829], suppl. 1828 [recte 1829]; 2/1849; Fr. trans., 1869). This was the first major biography of the composer. Nissen was aided in his task by the Salzburg choir director Anton Jähndl (...

Article

Rudolph Angermüller, C.B. Oldman and William Stafford

[‘Wolfgang Amadeus’]

Member of Mozart family

(b Vienna, July 26, 1791; d Carlsbad, July 29, 1844). Composer and pianist, the sixth child and younger surviving son of (3) Wolfgang Amadeus and (4) Constanze Mozart. He received his first piano instruction in 1796 from František Xaver Dušek in Prague, where he lived with the Dušek family. In Vienna he continued his studies under Sigismund Neukomm, Andreas Streicher, J.N. Hummel, Antonio Salieri, G.J. Vogler and J.G. Albrechtsberger. His first compositions, which include the Piano Quartet op.1, appeared in 1805. On 30 March 1807 Salieri declared his pupil to possess ‘a rare talent for music’, and prophesied a career for him ‘not inferior to that of his celebrated father’. On 22 October 1807 Franz Xaver went to Lemberg (now L′viv). In Podkamien he accepted a post as tutor in the home of Count Viktor Baworowski, a position he held until December 1810. In ...

Article

Member of Mozart family

(b Augsburg, Nov 14, 1719; d Salzburg, May 28, 1787). Composer, violinist and theorist.

He was the son of an Augsburg bookbinder, Johann Georg Mozart (1679–1736), and attended the Augsburg Gymnasium (1727–35) and the Lyceum adjoining the Jesuit school of St Salvator (1735–6), where he frequently performed as an actor and singer in various theatrical productions; he was also an accomplished organist and violinist. In 1737 Leopold broke with his family and matriculated at the Salzburg Benedictine University, studying philosophy and jurisprudence. He took the bachelor of philosophy degree the next year, with public commendation, but in September 1739 he was expelled for poor attendance and indifference. Shortly after, he became a valet and musician to Johann Baptist, Count of Thurn-Valsassina and Taxis, Salzburg canon and president of the consistory; it was to Thurn-Valsassina that Mozart dedicated his ...

Article

Georg Feder and James Webster

(b Rohrau, Lower Austria, March 31, 1732; d Vienna, May 31, 1809). Austrian composer, brother of Michael Haydn. Neither he nor his contemporaries used the name Franz, and there is no reason to do so today. He began his career in the traditional patronage system of the late Austrian Baroque, and ended as a ‘free’ artist within the burgeoning Romanticism of the early 19th century. Famous as early as the mid-1760s, by the 1780s he had become the most celebrated composer of his time, and from the 1790s until his death was a culture-hero throughout Europe. Since the early 19th century he has been venerated as the first of the three ‘Viennese Classics’ (Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven). He excelled in every musical genre; during the first half of his career his vocal works were as famous as his instrumental ones, although after his death the reception of his music focussed on the latter (except for ...

Article

Cliff Eisen and Stanley Sadie

Member of Mozart family

(b Salzburg, Jan 27, 1756; d Vienna, Dec 5, 1791). Austrian composer, son of (1) Leopold Mozart. His style essentially represents a synthesis of many different elements, which coalesced in his Viennese years, from 1781 on, into an idiom now regarded as a peak of Viennese Classicism. The mature music, distinguished by its melodic beauty, its formal elegance and its richness of harmony and texture, is deeply coloured by Italian opera though also rooted in Austrian and south German instrumental traditions. Unlike Haydn, his senior by 24 years, and Beethoven, his junior by 15, he attempted most of the art-music forms of his time and excelled at them all.

Mozart was baptized on the day after his birth at St Rupert's Cathedral as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus. The first two names record that 27 January was the feast day of St John Chrysostom, while Wolfgangus was the name of his maternal grandfather and Theophilus a name of his godfather, the merchant Joannes Theophilus Pergmayr; Mozart sometimes preferred the Latin form, Amadeus, but more frequently Amadè, Amadé or the German form Gottlieb. He was the seventh and last child born to Leopold Mozart and his wife Maria Anna, née Pertl (...

Article

Marita P. McClymonds, Paul Cauthen, Wolfgang Hochstein and Mauricio Dottori

[Nicolò]

(b Aversa, Sept 10, 1714; d Naples, Aug 25, 1774). Italian composer. He was important among those who initiated the mid-18th-century modifications to singer-dominated Italian opera. His greatest achievements represent a combination of German complexity, French decorative elements and Italian brio, welded together by an extraordinary gift for dramatic effectiveness.

Jommelli’s musical training began under Canon Muzzillo, director of the cathedral choir at Aversa. In 1725 he went to the Conservatorio S Onofrio in Naples, where he studied with Prota and Feo; he transferred to the Conservatorio Pietà dei Turchini in 1728, where his teachers included Nicola Fago. He was also influenced by the composers active in Naples during his student years, notably Hasse and Leo. Later, to Schubart, he admitted his debt to both Hasse and Graun. His public career began with two comic operas for Naples, L’errore amorosa in spring 1737 and Odoardo in winter 1738...