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Cliff Eisen

City in Austria. From its founding in the 8th century until the dissolution of the archdiocese in 1806, it was the seat of a series of prince-archbishops whose court was the centre of the city's musical life. Salzburg was incorporated into Austria in 1816; in the 20th century it became specially noted for its festival.

The two most important centres for the development of liturgical chant in Salzburg and its missionary districts were the abbey of St Peter, founded by St Rupert, and the cathedral, founded by St Virgilius in 774. The earliest musical sources from St Peter are in St Gallen notation; those of the cathedral follow the Messine tradition. In 798 Arno, the first Archbishop of Salzburg (798–821), instructed that services at the cathedral were to be held ‘following the tradition of the Romans’; statutes from 799 show that congregational hymns were permitted in addition to the psalm settings and songs sung by the monks. The earliest evidence for the practice of early polyphony in Salzburg is a 14th-century, gothically neumed graduale, in St Peter; a 12th-century copy of Aribo Scholasticus's ...


Arthur J. Ness and C.A. Kolczynski

This is one of a group of articles that give an outline of the spread of music and the range of sources before c1600. While the bulk of music throughout the period is vocal (as far as is known) and is discussed in the article Sources, MS, there are still some repertories that were always distinct. The sources of lute music are perhaps the clearest to distinguish for, with few exceptions, they were written in a special range of notations that did not use the staff.

The terminal date adopted here is later than that for other articles in the group because many important repertories of lute music date from after 1600. Thus the repertory of the English golden age straddles the turn of the century, the principal French school flourished internationally in the 17th century, and a group of central European lutenists sustained the instrument as a viable medium well into the last decades of the 18th century....


Otto E. Albrecht

revised by Stephen Roe

This article is a fundamental revision of Otto Albrecht’s comprehensive listing in Grove6 of collections of printed and manuscript music and letters of composers and musicians, libraries, books, and theoretical works still in private hands. Instruments, collections of and Sound archives are treated elsewhere. Albrecht’s division into two sections has been retained, though the parts are retitled ‘Current Collections’ and ‘Historical Collections’. The former records geographically collections in the process of formation and development, or which remain in the family of the original collector or have not yet reached permanent, public, institutional ownership. The second lists alphabetically collections since the late 15th century which have reached a final destination (as far as can be ascertained) or have now been dispersed. Political and market forces of the last 30 or so years of the 20th century have shown that it is not always an inexorable progress from the first to the second list and in some cases the reverse journey has been made. Bibliographical details are generally omitted in the second part; they may be found under the entry for the library where the collection is now located....