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Miriam W. Barndt-Webb

(b Reichenhall [now Bad Reichenhall], 1629; d Salzburg, Feb 25, 1684). Austrian composer. He attended the Benedictine University at Salzburg and then served as organist at St Lambrecht Abbey in Styria from 1651 to 1653. In 1654 he was appointed vice-Kapellmeister at the court of the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg and in 1679 was promoted to Kapellmeister, a position he held until his death. From 1666 until his death he was also Kapellmeister at Salzburg Cathedral. His pieces for solo voice suggest the influence of Monteverdi and other Italian composers who cultivated monodic music, whereas some of his larger works reflect the so-called ‘colossal’ style, as seen in the Missa Salisburgensis (formerly attributed to Benevoli, now Biber; see Hintermaier, Jaksch and Chafe).


Christine de Catanzaro

(b Niederachen, nr Inzell, Upper Bavaria, Oct 1, 1729; d Salzburg, Dec 22, 1777). German composer and organist. His father, Ulrich Adlgasser (1704–56), was a teacher and organist. On 4 December 1744 he registered in the ‘Grammatistae’ class at Salzburg University, and in the same year he became a chorister at the Salzburg court chapel. His brothers Joseph (b 1732), later organist at Laufen, and Georg (b 1736) were also choirboys in Salzburg. While a student he sang and acted in several Schuldramen, including seven by J.E. Eberlin. He studied the organ and violin, and probably also received instruction in composition from Eberlin.

Adlgasser became court and cathedral organist in 1750, shortly after Eberlin’s promotion to the post of Hofkapellmeister. According to Leopold Mozart’s account of the Salzburg musical establishment (in Marpurg’s Historisch-kritische Beyträge, iii, 1757) Adlgasser’s duties also included the accompaniment of court chamber music on the harpsichord and composing for both the court and the cathedral. After ...


Cecil Adkins

(Fr. trompette marine; Ger. Trumscheit, Nonnengeige, Marien Trompet, Trompetengeige; It. tromba marina)

A bowed monochord equipped with a vibrating bridge in common use from the 15th century until the mid-18th. In its fully developed form the instrument is capable of sounding all of the pitches of the harmonic series up to the 16th partial. Analysis of the tone of the trumpet marine shows an extremely complex wave form whose partials are in the audible range up to about 14,000 Hz (the 25th partial). Comparison of its tone with that of a modern brass trumpet shows that the partials of the latter drop off sharply after the 10th or 11th partial. The use of a straight mute, however, heightens the upper partials of the trumpet so that it begins to show the same configurations as the trumpet marine for the first six or seven partials.

In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification the trumpet marine is a bowed lute (or fiddle).

The history of the trumpet marine may be divided into two overlapping periods: the first extending from ...


Cliff Eisen

(b Eggenfelden, Lower Bavaria, Feb 1, 1718; d Salzburg, Aug 15, 1798). Austrian composer and organist. He went to Salzburg as a 14-year-old choirboy and was appointed court and cathedral organist in 1754. At first his duties were restricted largely to performance at the cathedral; only after the death of Adlgasser in 1777 did Lipp become active as an accompanist at court. Less than a year later, Leopold Mozart wrote to his son: ‘You can easily imagine how beastly things are now that … Lipp accompanies at court. Whenever Ceccarelli sings, he complains loudly and publicly’. It is probably no coincidence that on his return to Salzburg in 1779, Mozart took over Lipp's court duties.

Lipp was a prolific composer of church music; manuscripts of his works dating from 1745 to 1796 survive in numerous libraries in and around Salzburg. Of his secular music only two string trios survive. Lipp's works are written in a conservative style and despite his long composing career he made few compositional advances. Leopold Mozart at first thought favourably of Lipp; in ...


[Mattia Sigismondo]

(b Leibnitz, nr Graz, c1668; d Salzburg, Aug 27, 1743). Austrian composer and lutenist. He studied at the Jesuit university at Graz from not later than 1684 to 1687, and then moved to the Benedictine university at Salzburg, probably as a result of the election of his father’s former master and patron, Johann Ernst, Count Thun, as Prince Archbishop of Salzburg. In 1688 he entered the court Kapelle, perhaps as a solo singer. He became vice-Kapellmeister in 1703, Kapellmeister in 1706, and also taught the choristers singing for some time. In 1723 he was ennobled by Emperor Charles VI. He was appointed high steward in 1726 by the ruling Archbishop of Salzburg. It is notable that as Kapellmeister, a post he filled until his death, Biechteler was paid less than his predecessor, Heinrich Biber.

Biechteler made an important contribution to the construction of a self-contained repertory for Salzburg Cathedral. His numerous liturgical works observe the distinctions, common in Catholic sacred music, between the ...


Elias Dann

revised by Jiří Sehnal

(b Wartenberg [now Stráž pod Ralskem], nr Reichenberg [now Liberec], Bohemia, bap. Aug 12, 1644; d Salzburg, May 3, 1704). Austrian violinist and composer of Bohemian birth. He was the outstanding violin virtuoso of the 17th century and a first-rate composer; he wrote instrumental or vocal, sacred or secular music with equal ease. His fame rests mainly upon his violin sonatas, especially those which require scordatura, but his polychoral church music has also attracted interest and admiration.

Biber may have had some music lessons, perhaps by the organist Wiegand Knöffee, in his birthplace, which was the property of Count Maximilian Liechtenstein-Castelcorno, brother of the Bishop of Olmütz. He may have studied at a Jesuit Gymnasium in Bohemia, and in the early 1660s he was already on friendly terms with Pavel Vejvanovský, who was then studying with the Jesuits in Troppau. Before 1668 Biber was a musician in the service of Prince Johann Seyfried Eggenberg in Graz, where Philipp Jakob Rittler and Jakob Prinner were also employed. In ...


Reinhard G. Pauly

revised by Ernst Hintermaier

(b Jettingen, nr Burgau, Bavaria, bap. March 27, 1702; d Salzburg, June 19, 1762). German composer and organist. He attended the Gymnasium in Augsburg, but his consuming interest in music kept him from applying himself fully to his studies. His musical education was similar to that of Leopold Mozart. As an 11-year-old boy Eberlin participated in school performances of musical plays; in later years, this kind of dramatic music occupied him frequently as a composer. Eberlin arrived in Salzburg in 1721 and was a student at the Benedictine university until 1723 but did not complete a course of study. He became fourth organist at Salzburg Cathedral in 1726 and by 1749 had risen to the rank of court and cathedral Kapellmeister.

Leopold Mozart, in his description of the Salzburg musical establishment (published in F.W. Marpurg’s Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik, iii, Berlin, 1757, 185–98), called Eberlin ‘a thorough and accomplished master of the art of composing … He is entirely in command of the notes, and he composes easily and rapidly … One can compare him to the two famous and industrious composers, [Alessandro] Scarlatti and Telemann’. Eberlin was on friendly terms with the Mozart family and with the clergy of St Peter’s Abbey in Salzburg, often composing music for special occasions there. In ...


John Kucaba

revised by Bertil H. van Boer

(b Vienna, Jan 29, 1715; d Vienna, March 1, 1777). Austrian composer, keyboard player and teacher. He can be considered one of the pivotal figures in the development of the Classical style in Vienna with a compositional career that spanned a period from Fux, his teacher, to Haydn and W.A. Mozart, for whom he served as a precursor.

Wagenseil’s father and maternal grandfather were functionaries at the Viennese imperial court. In his teens he began to compose keyboard pieces and to receive keyboard instruction with the organist of the Michaelerkirche in Vienna, Adam Weger. His accomplishments brought him to the attention of the court Kapellmeister, Johann Joseph Fux, who recommended him for a court scholarship in 1735; for the next three years he received intensive instruction in keyboard playing, counterpoint and composition from his sponsor and from Matteo Palotta. As a result of an enthusiastic endorsement from Fux, Wagenseil was appointed composer to the court on ...


Member of Mozart family

(b Augsburg, Nov 14, 1719; d Salzburg, May 28, 1787). Composer, violinist and theorist.

He was the son of an Augsburg bookbinder, Johann Georg Mozart (1679–1736), and attended the Augsburg Gymnasium (1727–35) and the Lyceum adjoining the Jesuit school of St Salvator (1735–6), where he frequently performed as an actor and singer in various theatrical productions; he was also an accomplished organist and violinist. In 1737 Leopold broke with his family and matriculated at the Salzburg Benedictine University, studying philosophy and jurisprudence. He took the bachelor of philosophy degree the next year, with public commendation, but in September 1739 he was expelled for poor attendance and indifference. Shortly after, he became a valet and musician to Johann Baptist, Count of Thurn-Valsassina and Taxis, Salzburg canon and president of the consistory; it was to Thurn-Valsassina that Mozart dedicated his ...