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Robert Münster

(b St Martin, Upper Austria, Dec 28, 1738; d Wiesensteig, May 18, 1767). German composer, father of Felix Joseph Lipowsky. He studied in Salzburg, where in 1759 he was evidently one of Leopold Mozart’s best pupils in theory and the violin. After 1763 he was clerk of the court in the then Bavarian electoral enclave of Wiesensteig. After playing for the Bavarian Elector Maximilian III Joseph (1766) he was called to Munich as Hofkammerrat, but died just before taking up this post. Of his works, which include one Latin school comedy (Salzburg, 1759), church music, concertos, quartets and keyboard trios, only two oratorios survive (in A-Ssp ) and a Te Deum (in D-Po ). A Symphonia a 4, which is ascribed to ‘Giuseppe Lipaphzki’ (in D-Mbs ) and cannot be the work of Joseph Lipavsky, may also be by him.

For bibliography see Lipowsky, Felix Joseph...


(Walburga Ignatia)

Member of Mozart family

(b Salzburg, 30/July 31, 1751; d Salzburg, Oct 29, 1829). Pianist, daughter of (1) Leopold Mozart. She received her first music lessons from her father in 1758; in 1764 Leopold considered her ‘one of the most skilful pianists in Europe’ (letter of 8 June). From 1762 to 1767 Nannerl travelled with her family on various musical tours; from 1769 onwards she was no longer permitted to show her artistic talent on travels with her brother, as she had reached a marriageable age. While Wolfgang triumphed as a composer and virtuoso abroad, she remained with her mother in Salzburg. Wolfgang praised her compositions and encouraged her to continue composing, but her father never mentioned her work, and none of it survives. Whereas Mozart disobeyed his father and married a woman of his choice, Nannerl, who was an avid reader and theatre-goer, obviously adopted the prescriptive and pedagogical literature of the late Enlightenment and lived as the epitome of contemporary ideas of femininity (piety, self-sacrifice, propriety, modesty). She apparently renounced her love for the captain and private tutor Franz d'Ippold and in accordance with her father's wishes married Johann Baptist von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg (...


Cliff Eisen

(b Eggenfelden, Lower Bavaria, Feb 1, 1718; d Salzburg, Aug 15, 1798). Austrian composer and organist. He went to Salzburg as a 14-year-old choirboy and was appointed court and cathedral organist in 1754. At first his duties were restricted largely to performance at the cathedral; only after the death of Adlgasser in 1777 did Lipp become active as an accompanist at court. Less than a year later, Leopold Mozart wrote to his son: ‘You can easily imagine how beastly things are now that … Lipp accompanies at court. Whenever Ceccarelli sings, he complains loudly and publicly’. It is probably no coincidence that on his return to Salzburg in 1779, Mozart took over Lipp's court duties.

Lipp was a prolific composer of church music; manuscripts of his works dating from 1745 to 1796 survive in numerous libraries in and around Salzburg. Of his secular music only two string trios survive. Lipp's works are written in a conservative style and despite his long composing career he made few compositional advances. Leopold Mozart at first thought favourably of Lipp; in ...


R.D. Sjoerdsma and Robert Münster

(b Hořín, nr Mělník, c1760; d Bückeburg, Oct 11, 1795). Czech violinist and composer. He was born of peasant parentage in the Czech-speaking part of central Bohemia. He received his early musical training from a local schoolmaster and was already a skilled violinist and composer when, still very young, he went to Prague to continue his studies. Like many of his Czech contemporaries he left his native country, and his early travels took him to various monasteries in Bavaria, performing and composing in return for food and lodging. Documentary records indicate that in autumn 1780 he visited the Augustinian monasteries Au am Inn and Gars am Inn as well as the Benedictine monastery Attel am Inn. In 1781 he stayed in the Upper Bavarian cloisters of Diessen, Andechs, Schäftlarn and Fürstenfeld. Further journeys took him to Munich and Vienna, where, according to Schlichtegroll, he made the acquaintance of Haydn, Mozart, and his compatriots Kozeluch and Wranitzky. Important among other monasteries visited were Ottobeuren, where he taught music intermittently from ...


Cliff Eisen

(b Raab, Feb 8, 1746; d Salzburg, Jan 18, 1784). Austrian composer and violinist. He enrolled at the Salzburg University Gymnasium in 1759 and subsequently took instruction as a discant at the Kapellhaus; he may have been a pupil of Leopold Mozart. He served at St Peter after his voice broke in 1763 and in 1767 he was appointed to a position at court. In late 1768 and 1769 Hafeneder began teaching the violin at the Kapellhaus, taking over the position of the recently deceased Wenzel Hebelt, who had taught the violin there during Leopold Mozart's frequent absences from Salzburg. Apparently Hafeneder thought highly of his own violin playing: in a petition to Archbishop Schrattenbach he wrote, ‘I venture to say that no-one at court approaches me in violin playing – to say nothing of surpassing me – and at your gracious command I shall attempt to prove this’. In a letter of ...


Reinhard G. Pauly

revised by Ernst Hintermaier

(b Jettingen, nr Burgau, Bavaria, bap. March 27, 1702; d Salzburg, June 19, 1762). German composer and organist. He attended the Gymnasium in Augsburg, but his consuming interest in music kept him from applying himself fully to his studies. His musical education was similar to that of Leopold Mozart. As an 11-year-old boy Eberlin participated in school performances of musical plays; in later years, this kind of dramatic music occupied him frequently as a composer. Eberlin arrived in Salzburg in 1721 and was a student at the Benedictine university until 1723 but did not complete a course of study. He became fourth organist at Salzburg Cathedral in 1726 and by 1749 had risen to the rank of court and cathedral Kapellmeister.

Leopold Mozart, in his description of the Salzburg musical establishment (published in F.W. Marpurg’s Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik, iii, Berlin, 1757, 185–98), called Eberlin ‘a thorough and accomplished master of the art of composing … He is entirely in command of the notes, and he composes easily and rapidly … One can compare him to the two famous and industrious composers, [Alessandro] Scarlatti and Telemann’. Eberlin was on friendly terms with the Mozart family and with the clergy of St Peter’s Abbey in Salzburg, often composing music for special occasions there. In ...


Walter Senn

revised by T. Herman Keahey

[Malzahn, Malzard, Maltzath, Maltzbach]

Austrian family of musicians of Moravian origin .

( b Pirnitz [now Brtnice], 1723; d Vienna, Nov 25, 1760). Composer and violinist . He is believed to have gone to Vienna in 1745, possibly in the service of Count Haugwitz; in 1747 he was musicus primarius at the Dominikanerkirche and in 1757 musicus at the Stephansdom. He was probably the Malzat listed as a violinist in the Burgtheater orchestra. Works attributed to him include a partita ( D-KA , ed. J. Trojan, Prague, c 1981), a sinfonia ( A-Gd ) and a quartet, a flute concerto and three symphonies listed in the Breitkopf catalogues.

( b Vienna, April 21, 1749; d Innsbruck, May 13, 1787). Composer and choirmaster , son of (1) Josef Malzat. He attended the grammar school in Kremsmünster, where he was a chorister and possibly also a cellist (see Weiss). He was subsequently a teacher in the abbeys of Stams in the Tyrol (...


Michel Huglo

(from Lat. liber processionalis, processionale, processionarium)

A small portable liturgical book of the Western Church, containing the chants, rubrics and collects appropriate to liturgical processions. It is of particular musical interest since it contains antiphons, verses, rhymed Preces and even polyphonic chants that do not occur in other liturgical books. Like the pontifical, it was a comparatively late addition to the repertory of official liturgical books, originating in the 10th and 11th centuries; the processional antiphons are much older, and formerly occurred in the gradual.

Processions occur in most ancient religions. Essentially, they consist of a communal progress on foot for the purpose of petition, penitence or even protocol (as in the processions of the Byzantine court), and the singing of chants. The latter may be very diverse in style – syllabic, melismatic or in litany form (i.e. a series of invocations or petitions, to each of which the congregation makes a brief response).

The oldest known processionals (books containing the processional chants) date from the 12th century, although a book of the chants for the Rogationtide procession at Metz Cathedral (...


Member of Mozart family

(b Augsburg, Nov 14, 1719; d Salzburg, May 28, 1787). Composer, violinist and theorist.

He was the son of an Augsburg bookbinder, Johann Georg Mozart (1679–1736), and attended the Augsburg Gymnasium (1727–35) and the Lyceum adjoining the Jesuit school of St Salvator (1735–6), where he frequently performed as an actor and singer in various theatrical productions; he was also an accomplished organist and violinist. In 1737 Leopold broke with his family and matriculated at the Salzburg Benedictine University, studying philosophy and jurisprudence. He took the bachelor of philosophy degree the next year, with public commendation, but in September 1739 he was expelled for poor attendance and indifference. Shortly after, he became a valet and musician to Johann Baptist, Count of Thurn-Valsassina and Taxis, Salzburg canon and president of the consistory; it was to Thurn-Valsassina that Mozart dedicated his ...


Margaret Grave and Jay Lane

[Ditters, Carl]

(b Vienna, Nov 2, 1739; d Neuhof [now Nový Dvůr], nr Sobĕslav, Bohemia, Oct 24, 1799). Austrian composer and violinist. After promising early success in Vienna, he settled for a modest career as a provincial Kapellmeister and administrator. He composed voluminously despite the official responsibilities that occupied him for much of his life, and his generally high standard of craftsmanship earned him recognition as a leading figure of the Viennese Classical school.

Born to Paul Ditters, costumier at the imperial court and theatre in Vienna, and his wife Anna (née Vandelin), Ditters enjoyed the benefits of a Jesuit school education, private tutoring and, from the age of seven, violin lessons. About 1750 he began studies with the violinist J.P. Ziegler, and before long he was accepted into the orchestra of the Schottenkirche. Soon afterwards he was recruited as a Kammerknabe by Prince Joseph Friedrich von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, whose Kapelle was one of the best in Vienna; from ...


Cliff Eisen and Stanley Sadie

Member of Mozart family

(b Salzburg, Jan 27, 1756; d Vienna, Dec 5, 1791). Austrian composer, son of (1) Leopold Mozart. His style essentially represents a synthesis of many different elements, which coalesced in his Viennese years, from 1781 on, into an idiom now regarded as a peak of Viennese Classicism. The mature music, distinguished by its melodic beauty, its formal elegance and its richness of harmony and texture, is deeply coloured by Italian opera though also rooted in Austrian and south German instrumental traditions. Unlike Haydn, his senior by 24 years, and Beethoven, his junior by 15, he attempted most of the art-music forms of his time and excelled at them all.

Mozart was baptized on the day after his birth at St Rupert's Cathedral as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus. The first two names record that 27 January was the feast day of St John Chrysostom, while Wolfgangus was the name of his maternal grandfather and Theophilus a name of his godfather, the merchant Joannes Theophilus Pergmayr; Mozart sometimes preferred the Latin form, Amadeus, but more frequently Amadè, Amadé or the German form Gottlieb. He was the seventh and last child born to Leopold Mozart and his wife Maria Anna, née Pertl (...


C. Matthew Balensuela

This article focusses on anonymous music theory texts written during the Western Middle Ages and early Renaissance (to about 1600), currently assumed to be anonymous and not closely associated with a known person, which have been edited and published in modern times.

Numerous artefacts of music have survived to modern times without clearly identifying their author. These include musical works, pictures, court records, theoretical treatises, and other documents. The corpus of anonymous theoretical works, therefore, comprises only a portion of all anonymous works in the history of music. In music theory, anonymous sources primarily span the time from antiquity to the early Renaissance, when texts were copied by hand. After the advent of printing, few theoretical works were transmitted anonymously.

Several groups of anonymous treatises are excluded from this article, such as works of ancient Greek, Byzantine, or Arabic music theory, works closely associated with named writers, and unpublished anonymous works. In addition, several significant anonymous works, such as the ...


Marita P. McClymonds, Paul Cauthen, Wolfgang Hochstein and Mauricio Dottori


(b Aversa, Sept 10, 1714; d Naples, Aug 25, 1774). Italian composer. He was important among those who initiated the mid-18th-century modifications to singer-dominated Italian opera. His greatest achievements represent a combination of German complexity, French decorative elements and Italian brio, welded together by an extraordinary gift for dramatic effectiveness.

Jommelli’s musical training began under Canon Muzzillo, director of the cathedral choir at Aversa. In 1725 he went to the Conservatorio S Onofrio in Naples, where he studied with Prota and Feo; he transferred to the Conservatorio Pietà dei Turchini in 1728, where his teachers included Nicola Fago. He was also influenced by the composers active in Naples during his student years, notably Hasse and Leo. Later, to Schubart, he admitted his debt to both Hasse and Graun. His public career began with two comic operas for Naples, L’errore amorosa in spring 1737 and Odoardo in winter 1738...