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Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Vienna, Nov 6, 1779; d Vienna, Jan 20, 1830). Polish composer, violinist and pianist, son of Bazyli Bohdanowicz. Together with his younger brother, Franciszek, he sang as a boy in the choir of the Hofoper. Together with his parents and his seven siblings he took part in the entertainingly unconventional concerts and performances organized by his father in Viennese theatres, mainly in the Leopoldstadttheater. The main source of his income, however, came from his work as an imperial administrator and, from 1820, as cashier to Baron R. von Hackelberg-Landau who was married to Bohdanowicz's sister, Katarzyna, a singer at the imperial theatres and at the Theater an der Wien. He composed VIII variations pour le violin op.1 and 6 deutsche Gesänge op.2 (in A-Wgm ).

A. Mrygoń: ‘Działalność Bazylego Bohdanowicza w Wiedniu’ [The activities of Bazyl Bohdanowicz in Vienna], Muzyka, 20/4 (1975), 83–94 B. Chmara-Żaczkiewicz: ‘Jeszcze o rodzinie Bohdanowiczów’ [More about the Bohdanowicz family], ...


Dezső Legány

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava], Dec 18, 1767; d Oberlimbach, Nov 24, 1836). Hungarian composer. He studied first in Pozsony, a lively centre of music, where operas were staged at a theatre which opened in 1776; weekly performances were given by Count Erdödy’s company from 1787 – including works by Haydn, Mozart and Paisiello. These surroundings must have encouraged Spech’s musical development, although in 1792 he became a clerk in Buda. He continued his music studies, however, completing them with Haydn in Vienna in 1800. After leaving Vienna (1804) he was a piano teacher in Buda and from 1809 a composer to Baron Podmaniczky. He was conductor at the German Town Theatre of Pest from 1812 to 1815 and during that period his first opera, Ines és Pedro (2, after S. Kisfaludy: Tátika; MS score in A-Wgm ), was performed there as Ines und Pedro, oder Die Johannisnacht...


David Charlton

revised by Hubert Unverricht

(b Leipa, Silesia, Nov 29, 1770; d Vienna, Sept 18, 1831). German violinist and composer. He was educated and taught the violin by an uncle in Warsaw. In 1787 he played under Sarti in Prince Potemkin's orchestra at St Petersburg. He became Princess Lubomirsky's Konzertmeister in Vienna in 1791, and from 1792 he took composition lessons with Haydn for some years. He started to publish music in 1798. He was in Paris for six months from 1802 to 1803, and wrote his first string quintet there. Returning to Vienna, he continued in the princess's service until her death in 1817, after which he received a pension, and spent the summers at the castle of Prince Lubomirsky in Łańcut. His death was probably caused by the cholera epidemic.

Hänsel's autobiography (MS in A-Wgm ) reveals an essential modesty which is reflected in his musical style, which developed from that of Haydn (he was not influenced by Beethoven), and his works were widely played, especially in Germany. His printed works include 58 string quartets, four string quintets, six string trios, 15 duos and 30 polonaises for strings....


Douglas A. Lee

[Maichelbek, Franciscum Antonium]

(b nr Konstanz, July 6, 1702; d Freiburg, June 14, 1750). German composer and cleric. He was the son of Sebastian Maichelbeck and Anna Maria Koch. In 1721 he was a student of theology in Freiburg, but by 1725 had moved to Rome to study music. After his return to Freiburg in 1727 or 1728, he served as organist and minor church official (praesentarius) at Freiburg Cathedral and professor of Italian at the university (1730). His obituary describes him as a very learned man of music, highly esteemed by his contemporaries.

Maichelbeck’s most important published works, Die auf dem Clavier spielende … Caecilia op.1, and Die auf dem Clavier lehrende Caecilia op.2, were directed towards the amateur keyboard player and present both theoretical instruction and material for performance. The study pieces, labelled as sonatas, each consist of a series of binary movements in the style of a dance or variation; in this format they are more in the realm of the keyboard suite than of the sonata. The pervasive two-part texture offers ample opportunity for the performer to fill in harmonies and ornamentation, as Maichelbeck suggested in the preface, but there is little evidence of the Italian style to which he referred in the title. In his op.2 (...


Boris Schwarz

(b Pest, March 4, 1795; d Vienna, March 28, 1876). Hungarian violinist and teacher. He studied the violin with his father, leader of the Town Theatre orchestra, and later briefly with Rode, who influenced him decisively. In 1816 he made his début in Vienna, and in 1819 he was appointed professor of violin at the newly founded Vienna Conservatory, a post he held until 1848. He played in the imperial orchestra from 1821 to 1868, and during the 1820s enjoyed great popularity as a soloist and quartet player, rivalling Mayseder and Schuppanzigh; he was selected by Beethoven to play in the second performance of the String Quartet op.127 (23 March 1825). Boehm was also an early exponent of Schubert's chamber music and played in the première of the Trio op.100 (26 March 1828). Considered the father of the Viennese violin school, Boehm was the teacher of H.W. Ernst, Joachim, Jakob Dont, Reményi, Georg Hellmesberger and other eminent violinists. He imparted to his pupils not only a solid technical foundation but also a sense of style and Classical tradition. Joachim said of him: ‘Based on an unfailing left hand and ideally smooth bowing, Boehm possessed an art of phrasing that enabled him to realize anything that he envisioned or felt’. As a composer, Boehm left a number of violin compositions which follow the trend of his day but display an unusual command of all violin techniques....


(b Vienna, Jan 7, 1775; d Iaşi, Romania, c1819). Austrian guitarist . The first native Viennese to achieve prominence as a guitarist, he was essentially an amateur, since his profession was that of an imperial court accountant. Wolf married the pianist Anna Mrasek in 1802, and gave concerts with her until her death in 1809. His last public guitar concert in Vienna was on 15 March 1810 (reviewed in AMZ, xii, 476), when he played the ‘double’ (two-necked) guitar. Shortly afterwards the more skilful Italian guitarist Mauro Giuliani seems to have eclipsed Wolf (Hanslick, i, 257), hastening the latter's departure from Vienna in 1812. Wolf gave concerts in the eastern reaches of the Austrian Empire until his death. About two dozen pieces by him were published in Vienna (c1800–12), comprising variations, dances, potpourris etc. for solo guitar, and duets for guitar and piano, some composed jointly with Anna Mrasek....


Peter Branscombe

(b Vienna, April 29, 1771; d Vienna, May 10, 1820). Austrian composer, dramatist and singer. A powerful treble choirboy in Vienna, he went on to tour the provinces with itinerant theatre troupes after completing his secondary education. In 1792–3 he joined the Theater in der Josefstadt, where he took leading parts and composed Singspiele and occasional music. In 1796 he moved to Schikaneder’s Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden, first appearing as composer there with a score for Gieseke’s Die zwölf schlafenden Jungfrauen. Before the year was out he had also written two plays for the company. During the next 25 years he wrote many original plays, adaptations and much theatre music, frequently sharing the latter task with Seyfried, Henneberg and other composers (as with his own Holga die Göttin des Kristallengebirges, 1800). He gradually gave up composition (his work also includes some church compositions) but continued to write plays. Although he is reported to have left Schikaneder for the court theatre in ...


Jurij Snoj

(b Wunstorf, nr Hanover, Germany, before 1570; d ? after 1611) German composer. The information concerning his life comes mainly from his dedications. He was a teacher, presumably a private one, in Krems and/or Emmersdorf (Lower Austria). In April 1588 he took over as cantor at the Latin school in Ljubljana (Ger. Laibach, then the capital of the Habsburg Carniola), where he remained until July 1592. Besides teaching at the school, which was in Protestant hands, Striccius also led music at the Protestant S Elizabeth church. When in 1593 he published his second collection, he was a notary in Uelzen. In 1596 at the latest he moved to Pattensen (near Hanover), where he appears in documents as a notary, a public scribe, and a teacher. In 1607 he was married for the second time. The last document mentioning Striccius comes from 1611.

Striccius published three collections of vocal polyphony. ...


Jiří Sehnal

(b Strašice, nr Rokycany, bap. July 29, 1755; d Kroměříž, bur. Dec 17, 1815). Bohemian composer and string virtuoso. He was trained as a chorister at the shrine of Svatá Hora, Příbram, and studied in Prague at the Jesuit seminary of St Václav, which he entered in 1768. It is thought that he studied the violin with his elder brother Antonín (d 1804), an excellent violinist. He graduated as Bachelor of Theology and prepared for his entry into the Benedictine order, but suddenly changed his plans and accepted the post of first violinist in the Brno theatre. In the 1770s he made a concert tour of Silesia, and in Breslau became acquainted with Dittersdorf, who engaged him (?1778) as first violinist for Bishop Schaffgotsch in Javorník (Jauernig). When the orchestra was disbanded the recommendation of Baron Kaschnitz gained him the post of Kapellmeister of the Brno theatre for about two years. In ...


Maricarmen Gómez

(b Prades, nr Tarragona, c1530; d La Portella, nr Berga, 1604). Spanish composer, nephew of Matheo Flecha (i). In 1543 he entered the service of the Infantas María and Juana, the daughters of Charles V, as a chorister. After the marriage of María to Maximilian of Austria in 1548 he remained in the service of Juana, but left to become a Carmelite friar in 1552. In 1564 he was in Italy, and from there he went to the Austrian court where from 1568 he held the office of ‘Chaplain to the Empress and Musician to the Imperial Majesty’. In 1579 Rudolph II conferred on him the abbacy of Tihany in Hungary in recognition of his services. After various journeys to Spain, some of them on official business, he retired in mid-1601 to the Benedictine monastery of San Pedro de Portella, near Berga, of which he was abbot until his death....


(b Bruck an der Leitha, Feb 11, 1709; d Herzogenburg, April 2, 1768). Austrian organist and composer. He attended the Jesuit College in Vienna from 1720, studying the humanities; he also studied the organ, the violin and especially the viola d'amore. His attempts at composition pleased Caldara, who accepted him as a pupil, and a music drama by him was performed at the Jesuit College before Emperor Charles VI in 1727. Donberger went on to study philosophy in Vienna and earned his living teaching music, making the acquaintance of J.G. Graun, František Benda, Quantz and Tůma. On 30 May 1733 he was ordained priest and became regens chori at the Augustinian monastery of Herzogenburg; most of his compositions are sacred, written for this and other Austrian monasteries, although he also wrote some instrumental music. Along with Zechner and Tůma, Donberger was one of the leading composers in Austria between Fux and Haydn, and his works remained popular there well into the 19th century. His music shows a solid contrapuntal technique as well as an element of virtuosity, particularly notable in his masses and his German and Latin solo works....


Philippe Mercier

[Giuseppe Clemens]

(b Brussels, bap. March 27, 1710; d Arbizzano di Valpolicella, Aug 31, 1805). Flemish composer and cellist of Italian descent, son of Evaristo Felice Dall'Abaco. He was at first a pupil of his father, with whom his career has often been confused. The latter, employed at the Munich court, apparently sent his son to Venice to further his musical education; but on his return the young man could not find work in Bavaria, and on 29 March 1729 he joined the electoral chapel at Bonn as Titular-Kammerdiener und Hofmusikus mit dem Violoncell. On 26 August 1738 he was appointed director of the court chamber orchestra. In spite of his Bonn appointment he was able to travel, going to London and other English towns in 1740, and apparently to Vienna in 1749 when a work by him for five cellos was performed. In 1753 he left the court to go to Verona. He seems to have remained in contact with the Munich court, and on ...


Maurice J.E. Brown

revised by Ewan West

(b Graz, Oct 13, 1794; d Ober-Andritz, nr Graz, June 5, 1868). Austrian composer. He was educated at the Graz Lyzeum and studied law at the University of Graz. An accomplished pianist and by that time already a composer, he went to Vienna in April 1815 on the advice of Count Moritz von Fries to study with Salieri. Almost immediately he began to publish songs and piano pieces; his first string quartet op.3 appeared in 1816. As a recognized pupil of Salieri, he took part in the Salieri 50th Jubilee Celebration (June 1816) and with his brother Josef (1796–1882) became friendly with Beethoven and Schubert. After completing his studies in 1818 he returned to Graz, then worked in Vienna as a civil servant from 1819 to 1821. In 1821 he inherited the family estate in Styria and married Elise von Pichler. The same year he published a set of waltzes on melodies from Schubert’s ...


Guido Salvetti

revised by Osvaldo Gambassi

(Gualberto Maria)

(b Livorno, July 11, 1706; d Bologna, on or before Oct 28, 1773). Italian violinist and composer. His father, Giuseppe Maria, was from Livorno and his mother, Maria Maddelena Cavalli, from Florence. In 1735, in the service of the Tsarina Anna Ivanovna, he travelled to St Petersburg with a company of singers to which his wife Costanza (called ‘La Pasterla’) belonged. He remained there until 1737 as a virtuoso violinist and teacher. During the winter of 1737–8 he performed successfully in Hamburg. With his wife he then went to Holland and in 1739 to London, where, until 1742, he gave numerous concerts, including some with Handel, and published his VI sonate a tre, due violini e basso e cembalo op.1 (1742). In 1743 he played at the Concert Spirituel in Paris and in 1744 went to Geneva. He finally settled in Bologna, where, on 10 March 1752...


Benedikt Wagner

(b Pausram [now Puzdřany], Feb 8, 1764; d Seitenstetten, May 21, 1804). Austrian composer. The son of a peasant, he was at first an apprentice musician (Thurnergeselle) in Purgstall, Lower Austria, and around 1780 obtained a position as a bass singer in the Benedictine abbey of Seitenstetten, where in 1788 he succeeded the organist and composer Christian Widmann. In 1794 he had composition lessons from Albrechtsberger in Vienna. In his sacred music he closely followed the style of Michael Haydn, carefully observing liturgical considerations. His secular compositions consist of patriotic works from the time of the wars with France and functional music for use in the monastery. His music was performed in Seitenstetten until 1875.

all in MS in A-GÖ, KR, M, SEI, SF, Wgm, WIL, D-Bsb


Mosco Carner

revised by Herbert Krenn

(Franz Karl)

(b St Ulrich, Vienna, April 11, 1801; d Oberdöbling, nr Vienna, April 14, 1843). Austrian composer and violinist. The son of a glover, Martin Lanner (1771–1839), and a housekeeper, Maria Scherhauff (1772–1823), Joseph Lanner was largely self-taught as a violinist and composer. In the late autumn of 1816 he and the Drahanek brothers, Anton (1797–1863) and Johann (1800–76), formed a trio, sometimes expanded to a sextet, to play music in the yards and small taverns of Vienna. In the spring of 1823 Johann Strauss (i) joined the ensemble as a viola player. Lanner divided his orchestra into two on 1 September 1825, with Strauss becoming conductor of the other half, and in the spring of 1827 Strauss left Lanner and founded his own orchestra. On 28 November 1828 Lanner married Franziska Jahn (1800–55), but marital difficulties led to their separation in ...


Peter Branscombe and Julie Anne Sadie

German family of musicians.

Peter Branscombe

(b Strasbourg, 1741; d Munich, Nov 22, 1800). Actor, singer and theatre manager. He went to Paris as a 17-year-old to study medicine, but the opéras comiques of Duni, and later of Grétry and Monsigny, excited him to such an extent that he abandoned his intended career and became a singer and actor. He was a member of Sebastiani’s troupe in the Rhineland in 1764; the repertory included many Italian and French operas as well as plays. By 1771 Marchand was manager of the company, which performed mainly in Mainz, but also in Strasbourg, Mannheim and Frankfurt. In 1772 Gotter translated Poinsinet’s Tom Jones for Marchand, and André and Faber also provided him with versions of mainly French works. In 1774 he staged the Wieland-Schweitzer Alceste. In 1775 he went to Mannheim, with such success that the Elector Carl Theodor decided to open a German National Theatre, with Marchand as its first director. When the elector removed to Munich in ...



(fl 1640–78). German musician and composer. It may be assumed from his career that he was born and died in Hamburg. From 1640 he probably studied at Rostock University. Around 1650 he lived in Hamburg and fraternized with poets such as Johann Rist and Philipp von Zesen, and about five years later he moved to Amsterdam, where Zesen also lived from 1656. His Amsterdam publications are dedicated to wealthy merchants, whom he may have taught. From 1661 to 1672 he worked as a musician at the court of Christian August II, Count Palatine of Sulzbach. His move to Sulzbach may be connected with the simultaneous move there of several German ministers who had studied at Rostock and had held temporary posts in the Dutch Republic around 1660. After 1672 he returned to Hamburg, where he was still living in 1678. He suffered from partial deafness.

Meyer’s compositions fall into genres typical of mid-17th-century North Germany. He contributed a fairly large number of continuo songs to sacred and secular collections issued in Hamburg around ...


Chappell White


(b Pesaro, June 21, 1716; d Pesaro, April 1770). Italian violinist and composer. He evidently attracted patronage at an early age, for when he was 15 years old Cardinal Olivieri sent him to Padua to study with Tartini. He remained there for more than three years and then went to Rome, where he played so well that rumour credited his success with causing the death from embarrassment of the violinist Montanari. Bini soon returned to Padua for more study, however, having heard that Tartini had changed his style. His admiration for Tartini was returned by the teacher, who spoke of no other pupil except Nardini in such complimentary terms. On Bini’s return to Rome a year later, Tartini wrote recommending him to an English patron: ‘He plays better than I do, and I am proud of it, for he is an angel in morals and religion’.

Cardinal Olivieri died in ...


Ursula Kramer and Peter Branscombe

[Karoline, Carolina, Carlotta]

(b Stuhlweissenburg [now Székesfehérvár], Oct 28, 1803; d Florence, March 23, 1877). Austrian mezzo-soprano. The daughter of Johann Karl Unger, a professor at the Theresian Academy, she had her first singing lessons with Joseph Mozatti and Ugo Bassi. Later she studied with Aloysia Weber, J.M. Vogl and finally with Domenico Roncini in Milan. She made her début on 24 February 1824 in Vienna at the Kärntnertortheater as Dorabella in Così fan tutte. She and Henriette Sontag sang in the première of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony on 7 May 1824.

The next year Unger followed the impresario Domenico Barbaia to Italy; as early as 1825, the cartellone of Naples listed her as one of the prime donne among the women singers engaged for the season. She enjoyed further success in Turin, Bologna, Genoa, Milan and Rome. At La Scala she sang Isoletta in the première of Bellini's La straniera on ...