(b Vienna, Aug 5, 1957; d Eppstein, nr Frankfurt, Nov 30, 2000). Austrian composer. He studied at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst (1976–80) where his teachers included Urbanner and at the University of Vienna (1976–80). In 1981 he was appointed to the Hoch Conservatory, Frankfurt. He also taught at the University of Mainz (1982–6) and served as composer-in-residence at the Salzburg Landestheater (1990–97). His music has been performed at the Graz ‘musikprotokoll’ festival, the Dresden festival, the Wiesbaden May festival and many other similar events. Composition was for him both an intellectual and a dramatic act governed by dramatic rules newly formulated for each piece. He saw his music as a simultaneous coexistence and breach with tradition, a combination of the extant and the invented, a kind of musical disobedience inspired by a love of music. Especially notable in his oeuvre is the Third Symphony, a work commissioned by the Vienna Musikverein and given its première by the Vienna SO under Horst Stein in ...
(b Venice, ? between 1540 and 1550; d after 1574). Italian composer and instrumentalist. He was engaged on 1 November 1567 as trumpeter at the court of Emperor Maximilian II, and several gifts of money indicate that he was esteemed there. One of them probably relates to a composition that he dedicated to the emperor in ...
(b Linz, Dec 26, 1916; d Salzburg, February 8, 2005). Austrian composer and conductor. He began to study music seriously after World War II; his principal teachers included Heinrich Schiff, Orff, Fritz Lehmann and Johann Nepomuk David. From 1950 to 1967 he taught at the Linz Conservatory, where he also conducted and organized concerts of avant-garde music. He was appointed to a professorship in composition at the Salzburg Mozarteum in 1967, a post he held until his retirement in 1986. While in Salzburg, Eder was in close artistic contact with many distinguished visiting soloists and ensembles. His honours included the Salzburg music prize (1992) and commissions from the Salzburg Festival, the Easter Festival and the Mozart Week of the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum.
A versatile and prolific composer, Eder wrote in a wide range of genres and styles. In the late 1940s and early 1950s he was influenced by the neo-classicism of Hindemith and David. This was followed by a period of dodecaphonic composition that lasted into the 1960s. Later, he became preoccupied with ...
Gerold W. Gruber
(b Vienna, June 5, 1913; d Mödling, Nov 7, 1965). Austrian clarinettist, composer and writer on music. The son of well-known author and Vienna Burgtheater director, Anton Wildgans, his early violin and piano instruction was followed, at the age of 12, by theory and composition lessons with Joseph Marx. After further instrumental study, Wildgans taught the clarinet, chamber music and theory at the Salzburg Mozarteum (1934–6). From 1936 until his arrest by the Nazis in 1939, he played the clarinet in the Staatsoper orchestra and served as coach at the Burgtheater. After the war, he was appointed artistic director and head of the theory and performance departments of the Vienna Musikhochschule (1945–7), music advisor to the city of Vienna (1947–51) and president of the Austrian section of ISCM. In 1950 he accepted a post at the Vienna Music Academy, which he held until his death....
(b Vienna, Jan 22, 1900; d Vienna, Sept 22, 1975). Austrian composer and conductor. He studied the clarinet, composition and musicology in Vienna. A pupil of Franz Schreker and Franz Schmidt, he was musical director and composer at Vienna’s Burgtheater for many years and subsequently director of the Staatsoper and the Volksoper (1945–63). With a conception of music that took Romanticism as its starting point, he was regarded by many at the end of the 1920s as progressive, but not to an extent that would have endangered performances of his works in the 1930s and 40s or that would have forced him to emigrate. Among the most widely performed of contemporary composers, he became known primarily through his operas; Iwan Tarassenko (1938) demonstrates the humanistic ideals of the ‘good man’, and both the ballet Österreichische Bauernhochzeit (1933) and the opera Das Werbekleid...
12th-century theorist. Gerbert identified Gerlandus with the 12th-century canon regular and scholastic of St Paul’s, Besançon, noted for his writings, including a work on the liberal arts. His very brief tract on the mathematics of organ pipes and bells, in A-Wn Cpv 2503 (GerbertS, ii, 277f; RISM, B/III/1, 35, 44), resembles in its wording many tracts from contemporary manuscripts. Beginning ...
(‘The Devil’s Mill on the Wienerberg’)
Volksmärchen mit Gesang in four acts by Wenzel Müller to a text by Leopold Huber and Karl Friedrich Hensler; Vienna, Theater in der Leopoldstadt, 12 November 1799.
Die Teufelsmühle was one of the most successful of the series of Singspiels in a mixed genre that made use of local legends about knights and ladies, robbers and murderers, and good-hearted comic servants, landlords and peasants. The ‘devil’s miller’ of the title, Kilian (spoken), pays with his life for his crimes, while the noble hero, Günther von Schwarzenan (spoken), triumphs over difficulties to win the heart of Mathilde (spoken). The loosely constructed plot contains important minor roles for ghosts, benign spirits and minstrels, and offers abundant comic opportunities for Käsperle (bass), the hero’s timorous squire. Müller’s score (which survives in A-Wn ) contains 21 vocal numbers, mainly comic songs and duets, though there are medieval romances and a five-part canon, and two of the four acts end with extensive musical numbers. There are also numerous instances of melodrama and atmospheric Harmoniemusik. Müller’s six-year-old daughter Therese enjoyed great success as the guardian spirit Jeriel, with a song in each act. ...
(b Pulsnitz, Saxony, March 25, 1702; d after 1760). German composer and theorist . He was a son of the Pulsnitz schoolmaster and organist, Johann Gottlieb Ziegler. He learnt music from his father until he was 13; in 1715 he studied at the Halle orphanage, and in 1720 embarked on three years of theological study at Halle University while continuing his musical studies with his uncle, Johann Gotthilf Ziegler. As a member of the Halle collegium musicum he composed, according to Gerber, several cantatas, overtures, concertos and trios and arranged their performance. In 1723 he was in Dresden, profiting from contact with J.D. Heinichen, S.L. Weiss, Christian Pezold and J.G. Pisendel, and above all learning from Heinichen and Pezold ‘much about music’ (according to Walther). In 1724 he returned to Halle and embarked on a three-year course in law; after that he went to Quedlinburg as court organist, becoming organist of St Benedikti in ...
(b Vienna, April 25, 1926). Austrian composer and viola player. He learned to play the violin and the piano as a child and from 1938 attended the Musisches Gymnasium in Frankfurt, where, among other subjects, he studied composition with Kurt Thomas. After World War II, he enrolled at the Vienna Music Academy, where his teachers included Willi Boskovsky and Joseph Marx. Active as a performer, he played the viola with the Niederösterreichisches Tonkünstlerorchester (1952–4) and the Munich PO (until 1961) before becoming a full member of the Vienna PO in 1962. He has served as business manager of the Vienna PO (1969–81, 1985–90) and chair of several committees representing players' interests. His many awards include the Grand Decoration for Services to the Austrian Republic (1980).
Employing a particular compositional system has been less important for Fürst than conveying a ‘message’ through whatever musical means seemed appropriate. Stylistic incongruities, therefore, are inherent in his work. For the most part, however, his style is freely tonal, sometimes featuring jazz elements and contemporary performance techniques. Some works explore new performance possibilities: in ...
(b 1529; d Venice, February 17, 1603). Italian composer and singer. A pupil of Willaert and an altar boy in S Marco, Venice, he was appointed as a singer in the ducal chapel in or before 1546. In 1547 he was given the task ‘of keeping the maestro di cappella Adriano [Willaert] occupied in composing’. In 1562 he became singing teacher to the boys in S Marco; in the same year, he was given the post of director of the short-lived cappella piccola, which sang in S Marco on non-festive Thursdays and Fridays and, together with the main choir of the church, on Saturdays and major feast days. In 1577, Donato directed the group of singers engaged by the scuola grande of S Rocco to serve during religious ceremonies and processions, but he resigned within a year after quarrelling with the governors. Three years later, he was made singing teacher at the seminary. In ...
(b Salzburg, Aug 30, 1923). Austrian composer and conductor. His studies at the Salzburg Mozarteum (1940–47), where his teachers included Cesar Bresgen and Johann Nepomuk David (composition), and Clemens Krauss and Bernhard Paumgartner (conducting), were interrupted by a period of military service under the Third Reich (1941–5). He went on to hold the posts of répétiteur at the Vienna Volksoper (1947–8) and musical director at the Salzburg Landestheater (1948–51). In 1969 he was appointed to a professorship in composition at the Mozarteum. He has served as a member of the board of directors of the Salzburg Festival (1971–9) and as a corresponding member of the Bayerische Akademie der Künste (from 1977). He has also conducted internationally.
Wimberger does not differentiate between light and serious music. His vocal works set humorous texts, as well as great literature. He has aimed to write in a comprehensible style and to compose music that fulfils a social function. His credo:...
(b Heilbronn, c1535; d after 1575). German composer, Kantor and organist. He studied at Heidelberg in 1553 and at Tübingen in 1554, gaining the BA in 1555. He was Kantor at Mergentheim in Franconia in 1555 and from about 1560 to 1564 was organist at Feuchtwangen. In 1565 he was probably a court musician at Ansbach. In 1557 he applied for the post of Kantor at Hipoltstein, and in 1563–4 he applied unsuccessfully for the positions of organist at Windsheim and court musician in Württemberg. From 1569 to 1575 he was Kapellmeister and organist to Landgrave Philipp the Younger of Hesse at Schloss Rheinfels and organist at St Goar, south of Koblenz. However, he lost these posts over a dispute with the citizens of St Goar and was imprisoned. In an autobiographical threnody, Bis in den Himmel clage ich über Tyrannei (in A-Wn ), he complained to the emperor of his unjust treatment by Margrave Georg Friedrich of Ansbach-Brandenburg and Landgrave Philipp of Hesse. He composed ...
(b Šibenik, Dalmatia, Feb 9, 1935). Austrian composer and conductor of Croatian descent. He studied conducting with Milan Horvat and composition with Šulek at the Zagreb Academy of Music. He continued his studies in conducting with Matačić in Salzburg and Celibidache in Siena. In 1959 he began his career as a conductor, first with the symphony orchestra of Zagreb radio and television, later as chief conductor of the Komedija Theatre and as chief conductor of the Zagreb Opera (1978–90). He was also assistant to Karajan at the Salzburg Festival (1965–8) and to Karl Böhm (1975–7). He has appeared as guest conductor in many prominent opera houses and at many festivals.
As a composer Belamarić aims to combine modern stylistic features with an intelligibility and directness of musical expression, drawing on his considerable orchestral experience in his use of timbre. His first opera, the two-act ...
revised by Sandra Mangsen
(b ?Albino, nr Bergamo, 1670–71; d ?Bergamo, in or after 1717). Italian violinist, cellist and composer. His family lived in Bergamo from 1673, many of them being musicians at S Maria Maggiore, which he served for most of his life: he was a boy soprano from 1681 to 1684, occasional violinist from 1683 to 1686, second violinist from 1686 to 1696 and first violinist from 1700 to 1705, when the string orchestra at the church was disbanded on account of war. He was much in demand for leading opera orchestras in other north Italian cities.
Marino’s seven published volumes of instrumental music are characteristic of Italian sonatas and dances in the last decades of the 17th century. The op.1 Sonate da camera consist of ten dance pairs, all quite short and remaining in the tonic at the mid-point of the binary form. The op.2 suites are longer (balletto, corrente, ...
(b c1660; d Olomouc, Oct 3, 1735). German composer. After 1690 he came to Olomouc from Vienna and entered the services of the Olomouc chapter; in 1691 he became musical director at the cathedral. In 1696 he married Magdalena Cecilie Zindel, daughter of the cathedral organist. Although his salary was raised from 100 to 300 florins by 1702, Albertini complained throughout his life of the low pay and engaged in continual battles with the chapter, which refused to meet his demands and blamed him for the decline of music in the cathedral. In 1708 Albertini requested special leave to perform his compositions before the Emperor Joseph I in Vienna; he overstayed his leave and the chapter gave him notice, which was revoked only after the emperor’s direct intervention. In spite of perpetually strained relations with the chapter Albertini remained in his post until his death. He was probably related to the Ignaz Albertini who applied for a musical post in Olomouc as early as ...
revised by Beth Bullard
(b c1475; d between 1520 and 1532). German lutenist and composer. From September 1503 at the latest (probably earlier) he was court lutenist to Maximilian I; in this capacity he was in Augsburg in 1509 and 1518. He was made a citizen of Nuremberg on 5 August 1514; the document recording this event refers to him as ‘the good lute player’. In 1515 he was employed there for two years ‘so that he might with even more diligence teach young persons how to play the lute and other instruments’. As late as 1520 Dürer ranked him as one of the three best lutenists of his time in the inscription on the portrait of the Antwerp lutenist Captain Felix Hungersperger. In the early 1530s Hans Gerle spoke of him in Musica teusch (Nuremberg, 1532) and Tabulatur auff die Laudten (Nuremberg, 1533) as being dead.
Gerle was probably Blindhamer's pupil in Nuremberg: in the two treatises mentioned above he singled out Blindhamer for praise of his playing style, his skill in ornamenting, and his teachings on notating rhythms. By citing ‘so widely celebrated a master’ as being adept and successful within the conceptual framework of German lute tablature, Gerle defended his own use of this notation against its detractors, most notably Martin Agricola in his ...
revised by Dolores Pesce
[Berno Augiensis; Bernardus]
(d Reichenau, June 7, 1048). Writer on church music and liturgy, and possibly a composer. He is generally believed to have been of ‘German’ birth from a family of some standing, and was named abbot of Reichenau by Emperor Henry II in 1008. Before this he had been at the monastery of Prüm for an undetermined length of time. The belief that he was a novice at either St Gallen or Fleury is now rejected (see Oesch). Before his appointment, the abbey had fallen on evil days. Berno restored peace and discipline to it, although he himself became embroiled in squabbles over property and prerogatives, especially after Emperor Conrad came to power (1024–39).
He travelled to Rome in 1014 for Henry's coronation and used the occasion to collect materials for his monograph on the Mass, De quibusdam rebus ad misse officium pertinentibus. Eight years later he went to Italy again in the company of the emperor, visiting Monte Cassino briefly. Finally, he was present in Rome in ...
(b Sternberg, Moravia [now Šternberk, Czech Republic], April 26, 1910; d Vienna, July 28, 1969). Austrian organist, composer and writer on music. He studied the organ and theory at the Vienna Musikhochschule under Lechtaler and others, graduating in 1932, and gained a doctorate from Vienna University in 1935 with a dissertation on the church music of Simon Sechter. He became organist of the Franziskanerkirche, Vienna, in 1933 and worked for Austrian radio from 1934. From 1936 he taught theory and composition at the Vienna Musikhochschule, becoming a lecturer in 1954 and professor in 1961; he also lectured at the university from 1965. In addition to numerous journal articles, his writings include the counterpoint text Der neue Gradus (Vienna, 1959) and the book Österreichische Kirchenmusik (Gerasdorf, 1961).
(b Novara, cbefore 1550; d Novara, ?1599). Italian composer. He was a cleric, first a canon on the island of S Giulio in Lake Orta, and then from at least 1580 at Novara Cathedral. He was the first maestro di cappella of the cathedral, being nominated on 7 August 1564. On 13 July 1599 he was succeeded in this post by Francesco Ramella. He probably remained in Novara until his death, and was admired and honoured both in Italy and elsewhere: his pupil Giovanni Battista Portio attested to this in the dedication of his collection Fiamma ardente (RISM 158619). Fedeli and other scholars have maintained that Varotto may perhaps be identified with a certain Michele Novarese whom Antonfrancesco Doni introduced as the interlocutor in his Dialogo della musica (Venice, 1544); Einstein, however, disagreed with this view. Varotto wrote predominantly sacred music, adopting the concertante style and the antiphonal choral practices of the Venetian school, showing originality and mastery. He also composed madrigals, which were published in collections. In the ...