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[André, Andries]

(b Harelbeke, nr Kortrijk, 1542/3; d Antwerp, July 30, 1591). Flemish composer. On 21 January 1563 he was appointed choirmaster of St Salvator, Bruges, and on 22 September of the same year he was named to a similar post at Onze Lieve Vrouwkerk, Kortrijk. He remained in Kortrijk until 1577 although he held a prebend at St Willibrordus in Hulst in 1564. In 1578 Kortrijk fell briefly to Calvinist rule. By the following year Pevernage had secured the position of choirmaster at St Jacob, Bruges. This city too fell to the Calvinists and Catholic services were suppressed there from May 1581 until 1584. On 1 October 1584 he was reappointed to his former position at Kortrijk and less than a year later became choirmaster at Antwerp Cathedral where he remained until his death. He was buried by the cathedral’s altar of St Anne. Antwerp archives confirm that Pevernage rebuilt the music library destroyed by the Calvinist rebellion and that he was active in humanist circles surrounding the Plantin press....


Karl Pfannhauser

[Johann Nepomuk Felix ]

(b Weitra, Lower Austria, bap. June 5, 1759; d Vienna, Aug 30, 1826). Austrian composer . He was a choirboy at the Schottenkloster in Vienna, studied humanities at Krems an der Donau and completed a philosophy course in Vienna. In 1778 he entered the Schottenkloster and in 1783 became a Benedictine priest; he was a priest (1786–1802) at the Laurenzkirche in the parish of Schottenfeld, Vienna, and parish administrator (1802–7) at the Ägydkirche in the Viennese suburb of Gumpendorf, where Haydn was also living. From 18 July 1807 until his death Zwetler was a prior and parish administrator at the Schottenkloster. He did much to improve its music, particularly during the period of peace (1815–48) that followed the Vienna Congress. Under him J.L. Eybler was the choir director, followed in 1824 by Ignaz Assmayr (1790–1862), and Franz Volkert (1778–1845) was the organist. During his administration the abbey’s archive and repertory were enriched by many works of the Classical masters, and Joseph Frühwald (...


John Warrack

(b Manchester, April 27, 1803; d Vienna, Nov 23, 1848). German critic, composer and teacher. The son of a Hanau merchant who had settled in Manchester, he was taken as a child to Germany. He studied law in Jena, Berlin, Heidelberg and Leiden, taking a doctorate despite his prosecution for ‘demagogic activities’; his first compositions date from this time. Already an ardent revolutionary, in whom Wagner detected ‘a certain wildness and vehemence’ (Mein Leben), he held various posts in rapid succession, including those of lawyer in Elberfeld (c1830), editor of a Cologne commercial newspaper founded by his father, the Handelsblatt (1834), and critic for the Kölner Zeitung and Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. On the failure of the Handelsblatt, he devoted himself entirely to music. After the death of his father and his wife he moved to The Hague to teach theory and aesthetics at the Royal Music School (...


(b Vienna, bap. Aug 6, 1651; d Vienna, Sept 30, 1712). Austrian composer. He spent his entire life in Vienna. He attended the Jesuit college there from 1666 to 1668. From 1679 until his death he was Kapellmeister of the Stephansdom (where his father was sexton and where his younger brother Andreas, a court string player, sometimes played). One of his first important tasks would have been to direct music performed in June 1680 as part of a festival of thanksgiving for the ending of a plague; for directing the music on one Sunday that month he received a payment of 50 florins in the name of the emperor. He also carried out musical duties at the Salvatorkapelle and at court. By an imperial decree of 6 June 1698 he was given the title of imperial court musician. After the death in 1705 of the Emperor Leopold I he became Kapellmeister to the Dowager Empress Eleonora Magdalena Theresia. In ...


(b Linz, bap. April 2, 1728; d Vienna, July 29, 1786). Austrian composer and violinist. He probably received his first musical instruction from his father, a dancing-master. After his father's death he found employment by 1759 as secretarius and violinist to Count Morzin during Haydn's tenure as music director. He was by then an established composer, with works published in Paris perhaps as early as 1757. He married in 1760, and after the disbanding of Morzin's musical establishment in 1761 he worked as ballet composer for the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna, succeeding Gluck. There is no primary evidence that he was an imperial court composer and member of the Hofkapelle, as often reported. When Gassmann replaced him as ballet composer Asplmayr continued as a professional violinist, meanwhile composing substantial quantities of instrumental music. His activities as a composer of dance music led to a collaboration with the choreographer J.-G. Noverre (from ...


Hermine W. Williams

(b Florence, Jan 20, 1681/2; d Vienna, July 1732). Italian theorbist and composer. Letters addressed to Ferdinando de’ Medici between 1699 and 1701 suggest that even before the turn of the century Conti was held in high regard for his performances as a theorbist in Florence, Ferrara and Milan. News of his virtuoso playing spread beyond Italy and by 1701 the Habsburg court in Vienna had offered him an appointment as associate theorbist with the same stipend paid to the principal theorbist, Orazio Clementi. Conti served in this capacity from 1701 to 1708, except for the period from October 1706 until July 1707, when his name is absent from the records. On the death of Clementi in August 1708 he was promoted to principal theorbist, a position which he held until illness forced him to retire in 1726. The court had difficulty selecting his successor; Joachim Sarao from Naples was appointed in ...


Ian D. Bent, David W. Hughes, Robert C. Provine, Richard Rastall, Anne Kilmer, David Hiley, Janka Szendrei, Thomas B. Payne, Margaret Bent, and Geoffrey Chew

A visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers.

This article includes a discussion of notation in society (§II), subdivided into its primary types, which are considered with reference to various notational systems. Other specialized aspects of notation are considered in separate entries: Braille notation; Cheironomy; Ekphonetic notation; Pitch nomenclature; Shape-note hymnody; Solmization; Tablature; and Tonic Sol-fa. For non-Western notational systems see, in particular, China, People’s Republic of, §II, China, People’s Republic of, §IV; Indonesia; and Japan, §III, 4. Other related entries on technical subjects include Conducting; Improvisation; Mode; Psychology of music; Scale; and Tuning.

Whereas Western notation is considered as such in §III, a discussion of musical documents as sources – their physical make-up and production, their format, the layout and presentation of the music, the ordering of their contents – will be found in ...