(b Vienna, Nov 29, 1816; d Vienna, Nov 5, 1860). Austrian composer. He spent almost his entire career as a Kapellmeister at Viennese suburban theatres, writing a large number of scores for Possen (farces) and Singspiele, most of which did no more than satisfy the expectations of the audiences of his day. He did, however, achieve a few major successes, most notably with the scores to seven of Nestroy’s plays written between 1851 and 1859, and in his instrumentation (from pirated vocal scores) of Offenbach’s operettas which reached Vienna in the late 1850s. From 1840 to 1851 he wrote over 60 scores for the Theater in der Josefstadt, the first being to F. Blum’s Die Tochter des Räubers (7 July 1840) and the most successful probably being that to J. Nikola’s Der letzte Zwanziger (12 September 1850), which was performed first at the Hernals Arena and altogether 111 times. Of approximately 80 works written by Binder between ...
Member of Strauss family
(b Vienna, Oct 25, 1825; d Vienna, June 3, 1899). Composer, conductor and violinist, eldest son of (1) Johann Strauss (i). He was known throughout his life variously as Strauss Son, Johann (ii) and Johann the younger. During their education at the k.k. Normal-Hauptschule bey St Anna in Wien, Johann and his brother (3) Josef passed the entrance examination to the respected Vienna Schottengymnasium, where they jointly studied from the academic years 1837–8 to 1840–1. In autumn 1841, at the instigation of their father, both sons entered the Commercial Studies Department of the Polytechnic Institute, where Johann was awarded ‘First with Distinction’ in his bookkeeping examination. Although his father intended him for a respectable, middle-class career in banking, Johann left the Institute in April 1843, having resolved to devote himself to music. Like his father he had grown up surrounded by music and, since the Strauss Orchestra rehearsed not only dances and marches in the family apartments but also overtures and concert pieces, the youngsters gained a thorough understanding across the broad spectrum of the musical repertory. Encouraged by their father, Johann and Josef became accomplished social pianists and, as Johann later recalled:...
Austrian firm of music publishers.
The firm was founded as the Chemische Druckerey in Josefstadt, Vienna, on 27 July 1803 by Alois Senefelder (1771–1834), who chose the bookshop of Peter Rehm’s widow as his sales outlet. As early as 7 December 1803 he transferred his outlet to the firm of Franz Grund ‘beim rothen Apfel’. The very early publications bore the imprint ‘A. Senefelder’ and later ‘Singerstr. Nr.932 à la pome rouge’, which was retained after Senefelder transferred his privilege to Sigmund Anton Steiner (b Lower Austria, 26 April 1773; d Vienna, 28 March 1838). On 23 October 1805 the firm moved into premises at Graben, Paternostergässchen 612, where it remained until 1835. Between 1809 and 1812 Rochus Krasnitzky was a joint proprietor; until 1815 Steiner was again sole proprietor, trading from 6 April 1815 as K.k. priv. Kunst- und Musikalienhandlung des S.A. Steiner, and then going into partnership (...
(b Vienna, Oct 25, 1815; d Vienna, March 31, 1885). Austrian composer and bandmaster. In 1825 he joined the newly formed orchestra of Johann Strauss the elder, and he worked closely with Strauss on the preparation of the latter's works. He formed his own orchestra in 1835, rivalling Strauss and Lanner and occasionally deputizing as conductor of the court balls. Fahrbach came into his own with the deaths of Lanner and Strauss, before being overshadowed again with the emergence of the younger Johann Strauss. He published some 400 dances and marches, as well as theatre and religious music, and he contributed articles on wind instruments and military music to the Allgemeine Wiener Musikzeitung. A large collection of his manuscripts is in A-Wst .
His son Philipp (b Vienna, 16 Dec 1843; d Vienna, 15 Feb 1894) was also a composer and bandmaster. He studied the violin under Jakob Dont and by ...
Karl Maria Pisarowitz
German family of musicians and singers . They were significant in the life of Beethoven.
(b Wolfach, Nov 2, 1739; d Breslau [now Wrocław], May 28, 1815). Instrumentalist . At the age of 26 he played the flute, violin and cello at Montjoie (now Monschau). On 10 April 1767 he became a musician of the electoral court at Bonn, where he met Beethoven’s family. He made various journeys after 1774, including one to Vienna, where he became a member of the Tonkünstler-Sozietät on 21 August 1777. On 16 March 1784 he arranged the concert début of his children (2) Max, (3) Walburga and (4) Magdalena. That year he was appointed music director for Count J. Pálffy at Erdöd, but was soon pensioned. He returned via Brünn (now Brno) to Vienna (29 April 1786), where he probably initiated Beethoven’s trip to study with Mozart. By 15 May 1787 Willmann was in Mainz (where Goethe’s mother described him as ‘ein sehr böser Mann’), in ...
revised by David J. Buch
[Der dumme Gärtner aus dem Gebirge, oder Die zween Anton (‘The Dumb Gardener from the Mountains, or The Two Antons’)]
Singspiel in two acts by Johann Baptist Henneberg, Benedikt Schack and franz xaver Gerl to a libretto by emanuel Schikaneder; Vienna, Theater auf der Wieden, 12 July 1789.
This singspiel (also known as Die beiden Anton) is a story of mistaken identity, love and conflict between an aristocratic family and their servants. It has an honoured place in the history of the Viennese popular theatre: it was the work that Schikaneder wrote for his first appearance at the Theater auf der Wieden after his return from the provinces, and it marks the first appearance of the character of the gardener boy Anton, with which he hoped to outdo the popularity of the comic servant Kaspar (or Käsperle) in his rival Marinelli’s Theater in der Leopoldstadt. In all, there were six sequels to Der dumme Gärtner; contemporary commentary, including Mozart’s letter of May–June 1790 to his wife, testifies to the resounding success of the series. The first two operas were widely performed throughout German-speaking lands for decades. ...
John E. Diamond
(b Vienna, May 2, 1843; d Vienna, Nov 14, 1922). Austrian bandmaster and composer. His father financed his musical education at the Vienna Conservatory in return for a contract giving Carl Haslinger publishing rights. In 1863 Haslinger launched Ziehrer with an orchestra at the Dianasaal following financial disagreement with Johann Strauss II. Competition from the Strauss's probably led Ziehrer to three years as bandmaster to the 55th Infantry Regiment from 1870. He then formed an orchestra for the 1873 Vienna Weltausstellung and in 1874 founded the musical journal Deutsche Musik-Zeitung. While he was bandmaster of the 76th Infantry Regiment (1875–7) he changed his publisher to Doblinger. Later, he hired many of Eduard Strauss's musicians, naming them the Former Eduard Strauss Orchestra which led to an unpopular lawsuit; self-banishment took him through Eastern Europe and Germany with a reconstituted orchestra. He met his wife, Marianne Edelmann, an operetta singer, in Berlin in ...
revised by Suzanne Wijsman
Bohemian and Austrian family of cellists and composers.
(b Rokycany, Bohemia, Dec 30, 1749; d Vienna, Aug 28, 1820). He was the son of Franz Kraft, a brewer and amateur musician who was his first teacher. Kraft furthered his cello studies with Werner, cellist at the Crusaders' church (St Frantis̆ek) in Prague, until Werner's death in 1768. He also studied law and philosophy at the University of Prague, but chose to pursue a musical career. Probably through Werner's connections as former cellist to the court of Count Morzin, Kraft was engaged as principal cellist in the Kapelle of Prince Nikolaus Esterházy in 1778, a post he retained until the orchestra was dissolved in 1790; he studied composition with Haydn. He married Maria Anna Schevitzka and had at least five children.
Haydn composed his Cello Concerto in D major
(b Tyrnau [now Mestectro Trnávkal], Sept 26, 1759; d Baden, nr Vienna, Aug 3, 1835). Austrian composer. He studied music with the schoolmaster at Chornitz (Kornice), south-east Moravia, and could soon play all the instruments of the orchestra. At the age of 12 he wrote a mass for the ordination of an older brother. He was sent to the Benedictine foundation of Raigern (Rajhrad), near Brno, where he concentrated on mastering wind instruments; taught and encouraged by the choirmaster, Maurus Haberbauer, he also composed. When the prelate went to Johannisberg, the seat of the Prince-Bishop of Breslau, he took Müller with him and Dittersdorf became his teacher. In 1782 Müller joined Waizhofer’s theatre company at Brno as third violinist and composed a successful Singspiel, Das verfehlte Rendezvous, oder Die weiblichen Jäger. Encouraged by the comic actor and singer Anton Baumann, and by the new theatre director Bergopzoomer, Müller made excellent progress. The story that Emperor Joseph II, impressed by Müller, determined to send him to Italy to study must be discounted on grounds of chronology. But in ...
[ Adolph ]
( b Tolna, Hungary, Oct 7, 1801; d Vienna, July 29, 1886). Austrian composer and Kapellmeister . Orphaned at an early age, he was brought up by an aunt and trained for the stage. He received his first musical instruction from Joseph Rieger, cathedral organist at Brno, and is reported to have appeared in public as a pianist at the age of seven. After engagements as an actor and singer at Prague, Lemberg (L′viv) and Brno he moved to Vienna in 1823. He continued his musical studies under Joseph von Blumenthal, and on 27 February 1823 his cantata Österreichs Stern was performed at the University of Vienna on the occasion of Francis I’s birthday. A Singspiel, Wer andern eine Grube gräbt, fällt selbst hinein, was given in the Theater in der Josefstadt on 13 December 1825, and in December 1826 Müller became famous overnight with his score to Die schwarze Frau...
[Jan Ignatius] [Vaňhal, Jan Křtitel]
(b Nechanicz [now Nechanice], nr Hradec Králové, Bohemia, May 12, 1739; d Vienna, Aug 20, 1813). Bohemian composer, violinist and teacher, active in Austria. His present reputation is derived mostly from his symphonies, his many published keyboard pieces and the comments of writers. He himself spelt his name Johann Baptist Waṅhal; his Viennese contemporaries and most scholars until World War II used the spelling Wanhal, but later in the 20th century a modern Czech form, Jan Křtitel Vaňhal, was erroneously introduced. Only one writer, Bohumír Dlabač, had extensive contact with him, acquired in 1795 in Vienna. An anonymous Viennese necrology, based mostly on local gossip, is complementary, but differs somewhat from Dlabač’s account. Additional observations based on fleeting contact in Vienna were mostly derived from one or other of these writers or from Charles Burney, who visited Vanhal on 12 September 1772.
Although there is indirect evidence that his father’s ancestors may have originated in the Netherlands, both of Vanhal’s parents’ families (Vaňhal and Volešovský) had lived in Bohemia for several generations. He was bonded to Count Schaffgotsch, in whose estates his family lived. During his early years in Nechanicz he was trained to sing and to play string and wind instruments; he also went to the nearby town of Marscherdorf to learn German and other subjects. His favourite teacher, Anton Erban, taught him to play the organ, and at the age of 13 he became organist in Opocžna (Opocžno). He later became choir director in Niemcžowes (Nemyčeves) in the province of Jicin, where Mathias Nowák trained him to be a virtuoso violinist and to write concertos....
revised by David J. Buch
[Der Stein der Weisen, oder Die Zauberinsel (‘The Philosophers’ Stone, or The Enchanted Island’)]
Heroisch-komische Oper in two acts by Benedikt Schack, franz xaver Gerl , Johann Baptist Henneberg and emanuel Schikaneder to a libretto by emanuel Schikaneder ; Vienna, Theater auf der Wieden, 11 September 1790.
This work, tbe forerunner to and likely model for Die Zauberflöte, and the first of Schikaneder’s magic operas (and the second in a series of fairy-tale operas based on Wieland), was long thought to be lost. However, a manuscript vocal score was discovered by Alfred Einstein in Florence in the 1930s; then three collections of printed vocal texts from various productions. The story, derived from the tale ‘Nadir und Nadine’ in the first volume of Wieland’s collection Dschinnistan, involves a young couple who are exposed to various trials, two brothers with supernatural powers, one good and the other evil, and a comic couple with their own problems. The one comparatively familiar number from the work is a duet (‘Nun liebes Weibchen’) for the comic pair, Lubano and Lubanara, in which she can only mew like a cat; this collaborative number was mostly composed by Mozart (...
J. Bradford Robinson and David Drew
(b Dessau, March 2, 1900; d New York, April 3, 1950). German composer, American citizen from 1943. He was one of the outstanding composers in the generation that came to maturity after World War I, and a key figure in the development of modern forms of musical theatre. His successful and innovatory work for Broadway during the 1940s was a development in more popular terms of the exploratory stage works that had made him the foremost avant-garde theatre composer of the Weimar Republic.
David Drew, revised by J. Bradford Robinson
Weill’s father Albert was chief cantor at the synagogue in Dessau from 1899 to 1919 and was himself a composer, mostly of liturgical music and sacred motets. Kurt was the third of his four children, all of whom were from an early age taught music and taken regularly to the opera. Despite its strong Wagnerian emphasis, the Hoftheater’s repertory was broad enough to provide the young Weill with a wide range of music-theatrical experiences which were supplemented by the orchestra’s subscription concerts and by much domestic music-making....
[Franz (Sales); Franz Xaver (Stanislaus); Stanislaus; Stanislaus Franz (Xaver)] [Meister]
(b Steingaden, May 4, 1763; d Strasbourg, Sept 8, 1819). German composer and singer. Although baptized Stanislaus, he took the additional name Franz, often using it in place of his baptismal name. Some compositions that he signed ‘Franz’ have erroneously been ascribed to his brother Franz Xaver (1758–1822), a priest. Another brother, Felix Mathias (b 1756), was active as a singer in Augsburg. Spindler was probably educated first as a choirboy in the Premonstratensian abbey of Steingaden and later in Augsburg. According to Reichard, his career began in 1782. His Singspiel Die Reue vor der Tat had its première in Frankfurt in 1783; he was in Innsbruck in 1785–6, and in summer 1786 appeared with Emanuel Schikaneder’s troupe in Augsburg, where his Singspiel Balders Tod was performed. According to his obituary (AMZ), he was a pupil of Dittersdorf, and he was probably a member of the Prince-Bishop of Breslau’s Kapelle at Johannisberg (Jánský Vrch), near Jayernig (Javorník), in Silesia, which Dittersdorf directed. In ...
Friderica Derra De Moroda
revised by Sibylle Dahms
(b Drosendorf, bap. May 2, 1729; d Munich, April 19, 1773). Austrian violinist and composer. He probably studied in Vienna, where he met Jommelli (c1749) and may have met and even written some ballet music for the ballet-master Franz Hilverding. In 1751 he accepted a position as a ripieno violinist in the Stuttgart Hofkapelle of Duke Carl Eugen of Württemberg. In 1756 Deller asked the duke’s permission to take lessons in counterpoint and composition from Jommelli, who was engaged as principal conductor at Stuttgart from 1753. Meanwhile, he also played the violin for the dancing classes of the ballet-masters Michel dell’Agatha and François Sauveterre, which gave him an insight into dance technique and its musical requirements. With the arrival of J.-G. Noverre early in 1760 the ballet company, which had been founded two years earlier, was greatly enlarged. The next years saw ballet productions on a lavish scale featuring famous dancers, particularly from Paris, like Gaetan Vestris. Noverre soon recognized Deller’s talent for composing ballet music, and is said to have considered him his most able collaborator (Schubart, ...
Barry S. Brook
A thematic catalogue is an index to a group of musical compositions that incorporates citations of their opening notes (incipits), or principal melodic features (themes), or both. These citations may be given in various forms, such as conventional notes, neumes, tablatures, syllables, numbers, letters or computer codes.
In practice, defying etymology, most thematic catalogues are concerned with incipits rather than with themes. The semantic confusion arose in the late 18th century, when the terms ‘theme’ and ‘thematic catalogue’ were first regularly used. Because compositions almost always began with their main theme, the words ‘theme’ or ‘themata’ were treated as synonymous with what has only recently come to be called ‘incipit’. In the 18th century, they were used interchangeably with ‘initia’, ‘beginnings’, ‘commencements’, ‘Anfänge’, ‘subjects’ or ‘first few bars’. The combined term ‘thematic catalogue’ was first used in print by J.J. Hummel in 1768 for what was really an incipit index (but not the earliest: see §2(i) and (iii) below). In the 20th century, in the relatively few instances where true themes rather than incipits are catalogued, the adjective ‘thematic’ is avoided in the title (e.g. H. Barlow and S. Morgenstern: ...
revised by Susan Youens
(Filipp Jakob )
(b Windischgraz, Styria [now Slovenjgradec, Slovenia], March 13, 1860; d Vienna, Feb 22, 1903). Austrian composer. He intensified the expressive vocabulary of the lied by means of extended tonality and post-Wagnerian declamation while retaining the defining elements of the song tradition he had inherited from Schubert and Schumann. Profoundly responsive to poetry, he incorporated detailed readings of his chosen poems in the compositional decisions he made about every aspect of song: harmonic nuances, tonal form, melodic design, vocal declamation, pianistic texture, the relationship of voice to piano, etc. Seeking an art ‘written with blood’, he went below the surface of poetry – even where his musical purposes were inevitably distinct from the poet's – in order to recreate it in music of remarkable intensity, written, as he once proclaimed, for epicures, not amateurs.
Wolf was born in the small town of Windischgraz, then part of the Austrian Empire but incorporated into Yugoslavia after World War I. The town was an outpost of Germanic culture within a Slovene region; Wolf's mother Katharina (...
Judith Leah Schwartz
[Johann; Georg Matthias]
(b Vienna, April 9, 1717; d Vienna, Oct 3, 1750). Austrian composer. The elder son of a coachman, Jakob Mann, and Catherina Päsching Mann, he was baptized Johann Georg but used the names Matthias Georg instead, possibly to avoid confusion with his younger brother Johann Christoph Monn. His preferred spelling, ‘Monn’, may be understood as a Lower Austrian dialect version of the family name Mann. He apparently sang in the choir at Klosterneuburg monastery in 1731–2 and at an early age (but not before 1738) became organist at the new Karlskirche in Vienna. There is little to support Gerber’s assertion that Monn was ‘Hoforganist’ at Melk Abbey or that he gave J.G. Albrechtsberger his first lessons in thoroughbass there. Albrechtsberger’s alleged reverence for Monn as a teacher (described by Sonnleithner) has not been proved, but a surviving set of thoroughbass exercises by Monn ( A-Wn 19101) suggests that he devoted part of his career to teaching....
revised by David J. Buch
(b Vienna, Dec 5, 1768; d Vienna, Nov 26, 1822). Austrian composer, Kapellmeister and organist. He succeeded his father as organist at the Schottenstift in Vienna, and by late 1789 had joined Schikaneder’s company at the Theater auf der Wieden (later the Theater an der Wien) as Kapellmeister and composer. He probably coordinated and certainly contributed to a number of successful collaborative operas at that theatre, particularly the series Der dumme Gärtner aus dem Gebirge, and numerous fairy-tale singspiels such as Der Stein der Weisen (1790) and Der wohltätige Derwisch (1791). He also arranged a number of foreign-language operas in German translation for the theatre. He supervised rehearsals of Die Zauberflöte during Mozart’s absence in Prague and conducted the opera from the third performance. From 1797 he had an able co-director in Seyfried. Apart from his own works, he arranged the piano scores of the Süssmayr-Schikaneder ...
Kathryn Bailey Puffett
(Friedrich Wilhelm von)
(b Vienna, Austria, Dec 3, 1883; d Mittersill, Sept 15, 1945). Austrian composer and conductor. Webern, who was probably Schoenberg's first private pupil, and Alban Berg, who came to him a few weeks later, were the most famous of Schoenberg's students and became, with him, the major exponents of the 12-note technique in the second quarter of the 20th century. Webern applied the new technique more rigorously than either Schoenberg, who took many liberties, or Berg, who never used it exclusively. Webern's strictness, and his innovative organization of rhythm and dynamics, were seized upon eagerly by Boulez and Stockhausen and other integral serialists of the Darmstadt School in the 1950s and were a significant influence on music in the second half of the century.
Webern was born in Vienna, the son of a mining engineer who later rose to be chief of the Ministry of Agriculture's Department of Mining. The family were minor nobility; Webern dropped the ‘von’ from his name in ...