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David Fallows

( fl c1430). Composer . His three voice motet O domina gloriosa is in the manuscript I-TRmp 87 (ed. in DTÖ, lxxvi, Jg.xl, 1933/R, p.70). A Gloria in I-AO 15 is ascribed to ‘Jo. Werken’ (misread by de Van as ‘Berken’); it is also in a fragmentary manuscript at Zwettl (...


Richard Loyan

revised by Ian Rumbold

(fl c1435–45). Composer, probably French or South Netherlandish in origin. He was perhaps from the Flemish town of Roulers, but was active mainly in the southern Germanic region. A coat of arms was granted to Hanns Rolle by Emperor Friedrich III in 1454, but identification with the composer is uncertain. His music is found mainly in two manuscripts in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich, and the Museo Nazionale, Trent; and the prominence of his name in the first of these indicates that he may have had some close connection with the compiler of that manuscript.

Some of Roullet's compositions are modest functional settings, often employing fauxbourdon, of liturgical texts with simple chant elaboration in the discantus. The Gloria, however, originally formed part of a mass pair, and the Sanctus incorporates three trope sections for the unusual combination of two discantus voices labelled ‘gemell’, one of the earliest uses of that term in a musical source....


Michel Huglo and James W. McKinnon

(Gk. evangelionLat. evangelium etc.)

In Eastern and Western Christian liturgies, the final biblical lesson in the Liturgy of the Word, or pre-eucharistic synaxis (seeMass, §I). It was traditionally chanted by a deacon to a recitation tone that was normally simple but occasionally subject to elaboration.

The first section of the Eucharist in all the ancient liturgies contains a series of lessons concluding with one from the Gospels. The Gospel, because it bore direct witness to the life and teaching of Christ, was accorded a place of pre-eminence, underlined by an elaboration of ceremonies at the point where it occurs: for example, the book containing the Gospel was carried in solemn procession from the altar to the ambo from which it was read. Such a procession, with lighted candles, was already attested by St Jerome (d 420). The procession came eventually to be accompanied by a chant: an antiphona ante evangelium...


Stanley Boorman, John A. Emerson, David Hiley, David Fallows, Thomas B. Payne, Elizabeth Aubrey, Lorenz Welker, Manuel Pedro Ferreira, Ernest H. Sanders, Peter M. Lefferts, Ursula Günther, Gilbert Reaney, Kurt von Fischer, Gianluca D’Agostino, Charles Hamm, Jerry Call and Herbert Kellman

A manuscript source is one that is written by hand. Before the invention of printing, music was preserved either by oral transmission or by MS copies. There is no reason to believe that oral transmission preserves the same music for more than a few centuries, at least in the West, so that all our knowledge of medieval and early Renaissance music depends on MSS. From the start of printing until the work of Petrucci in 1501, almost all printed music was monophonic, mostly chant: even thereafter, however, there has remained a living tradition of the MS copying of certain repertories where printing would not have been economically feasible.

The present article comprises a preliminary discussion of the nature of MS sources and their significance for present-day musical research, followed by a series of sections that review the character and repertory of the main classes of MS in use before 1600...