1-20 of 91 items

  • Abbreviation: "ADB" x
Clear all

Article

Nancy B. Reich

(b Leipzig, Sept 13, 1819; d Frankfurt, May 20, 1896). German pianist, composer and teacher. One of the foremost European pianists of the 19th century and the wife and champion of the music of Robert Schumann, she was also a respected composer and influential teacher....

Article

Walter Blankenburg

revised by Dorothea Schröder

( b Bremen, 1650; d Bremen, March 31, 1680). German theologian, poet and composer . He grew up in his native city and attended the Gymnasium Illustre, where he studied Calvinistic theology. In 1670 he was converted to Pietism by the Pietist revivalist Theodor Undereyck, the pastor of St Martini, Bremen, who obtained for him a private tutorship at Frankfurt. From there he went on to the University of Heidelberg with several of his pupils. From 1673 he was again in Frankfurt where he was in personal contact with Philipp Jakob Spener, the leading Pietist of the day, and also with the Pietist lyric poet J.J. Schütz. In 1674 he became headmaster of the Calvinist school in Düsseldorf, where he worked successfully until he got into difficulties in 1676 over his support for Pietist conventicles. He was first of all forbidden to preach and in 1677 evaded his dismissal from office only by signing a new school agenda, which he had fiercely attacked before. In ...

Article

Walter Blankenburg

revised by Clytus Gottwald

( b Germersheim, 1537; d Mosbach, Baden, June 24, 1597). German poet and physician . In 1554 he matriculated at the University of Heidelberg, where he was a pupil of the Latin poet Petrus Lotichius. He took his bachelor's degree in 1556 and became Master of Philosophy in 1557. He continued his medical studies from 1563 to 1568 in Bologna, Rome, Montpellier, Paris and Valence, where he gained the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1567; in 1570 Erasmus Neustetter, dean of Würzburg Cathedral, brought him to Würzburg as his personal physician. He became city physician in 1582. In 1585 Posthius obeyed a summons to Heidelberg from Count Palatine Johann Kasimir, where he was in friendly contact with Paul Schede (Melissus), the poet laureate. He died in Mosbach, where the court had fled the plague.

His literary importance derives from the Sonntags-Evangelia gesangsweise componirt, samt etlichen Psalmen und Kirchengesängen von D. Martin Luther und anderen Gottseligen Männern...

Article

G. Kraft

revised by Malcolm Miller

(b Oldisleben, nr Weimar, Dec 20, 1809; d Eisenach, Jan 8, 1858). German composer and teacher. He received his early musical education from Zoellner in Oldisleben, then studied the piano with Hummel in Weimar, and the organ and music theory with C.H. Rinck in Darmstadt. A virtuoso career was curtailed by damage to his right hand through overwork, and he turned to composition; his first works, including the opera Die Schlangenkönigin, were not very successful. Hummel supported his appointment in 1836 to the Gymnasium in Eisenach. Kühmstedt made a valuable contribution to music in that city, as teacher, director of church music and Kapellmeister. With Liszt he drew up a plan for the reform of musical life in Weimar. This stimulated the foundation of the Grossherzogliche Orchesterschule by Kühmstedt's pupil Carl Müller-Hartung. International recognition followed, including membership of the Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Toonkunst in 1846.

Kühmstedt's output spanned post-Classicism and early Romanticism. His technique was contrapuntal, with the music of Bach serving as a model for his preludes and fugues, chorale harmonizations and motets. He developed a parallel technique in his pedagogical works, which include organ pieces, a book of chorales, children's studies, a ...

Article

Walther Lipphardt

revised by Clytus Gottwald

[Johann]

(b Olomouc, May 1527; d Bautzen, Nov 24, 1586). German theologian, hymnologist and composer of Moravian birth. He studied theology at Kraków and was ordained in 1549. After a short period spent teaching in Vienna and Prague, he was sent to the diocese of Meissen by the Archbishop of Prague. The last Catholic Bishop of Meissen appointed him canon of Bautzen Cathedral in 1551. In 1559 he became dean, and in 1560 official-general for the diocese of Lusatia. When the bishopric of Meissen became Protestant in 1561, the papal nuncio in Prague appointed him ‘administrator and commissioner-general of the see of Meissen for Upper and Lower Lusatia’. The fact that Lusatia remained predominantly Catholic must be attributed to his pastoral endeavours, which were reflected in many catechetic and other writings, and to his astute and moderating ecclesiastical policy. He was one of the great reformers of the early years of the Counter-Reformation. The crowning achievement of his ministry was his great hymnbook ...

Article

Walter Hüttel

(b Freiberg, Saxony, Oct 17, 1790; d Freiberg, Aug 21, 1854). German Kantor and composer. He studied at the Freiberg Gymnasium, then at Leipzig University, where he took the master’s degree. He continued his education with J.G. Schicht, W.F. Riem, G.C. Härtel and Friedrich Schneider and lived in Leipzig as a singer, pianist and music teacher. In 1821 he was given a post in Freiberg as the city’s music director, becoming the cathedral Kantor and a teacher at the Gymnasium and the teachers’ training college; he also founded the Singakademie in 1823 and reorganized the Bergmusikkorps. He visited Beethoven in Vienna and became a champion of his music; he was also a friend of Mendelssohn, Reissiger and Wagner. His most important pupils were K.F. Brendel, Reinhold Finsterbusch and Robert Volkmann.

Anacker anticipated the modern German Kantor who was principally concerned with musical education and artistic competence. His compositions, mainly sacred and secular choral, are distinguished for their modernity and emotional intensity; the oratorio ...

Article

Renate Federhofer-Königs

(b Schwedt an der Oder, Feb 27, 1813; d Berlin, Sept 12, 1885). German musicologist. His name has sometimes been incorrectly given as Heinrich. After studying at the universities of Berlin and Bonn he entered the Prussian civil service in which he held several important posts until 1882. In spite of his many professional duties, Bitter gave much of his spare time to the study of music history. He discovered important documents concerning the life and works of J.S. Bach, though he often quoted his sources imprecisely or not at all, a practice which brought criticism from Spitta and Chrysander. Of equal importance are his contributions to the catalogue of Bach’s works, especially those on questions of authenticity and the problem of parody. He also studied Bach’s sons, in particular C.P.E. Bach, whose work Bitter judged and classified with unusual objectivity for his day. In spite of all his errors in printing and transcribing and his imprecision in quotation, he laid the foundation for Bach research with a historical-philological orientation. It was only eight years after the appearance of his ...

Article

Cecil Adkins

(b Ansbach, July 29, 1597; d Altdorf, nr Nuremberg, April 12, 1669). German music theorist . He attended the grammar school at Heilbronn from 1611 to 1618, when he enrolled at the University of Wittenberg with a scholarship from the Margrave of Brandenburg. Two years later he defended a thesis, De vero et falso, and in March 1621 was awarded a master’s degree. After working briefly as an assistant at Heidenheim (in 1622) and as a deacon at Markt Erlbach, near Nuremberg (in 1623), he became chancellor of the Lateinschule at Ansbach in 1625. Because of the Thirty Years War his salary was not regularly paid, and he sought other employment in order to support his large family: he accepted the chair of mathematics at the University of Nuremberg at Altdorf in 1636. During his years there he became well known as a competent though conservative mathematician and scientist....

Article

(b Vacha, 1501; d Mainz, Feb 16, 1573). German theologian . He studied theology in Erfurt from 1516 to 1517, and in 1520 he continued his studies in Wittenberg with Luther. He was ordained in Merseburg and received a curacy in his home community of Vacha. When in 1524 he became a Lutheran and married, he forfeited his ecclesiastical office and worked as town clerk in Vacha. For some years he was a Lutheran pastor in Wenigen-Lupitz and in Niemegk. However, intensive study of the writings of the Church Fathers caused him to turn away from Lutheranism, and by 1533 he was a Catholic preacher in Eisleben. Many apologetic writings followed in which he supported the Old Church and its service. He was summoned to the court in Dresden by the Catholic Duke Georg the Bearded of Saxony, but lost this appointment with the death of the duke and the ensuing Reformation in Dresden in ...

Article

Franz Gehring

revised by Bernd Wiechert

(Martin)

(b Erfurt, Oct 13, 1822; d Bremen, Feb 13, 1896). German conductor and composer. He had early training in music from A.G. Ritter and then studied theology in Berlin, but after passing his state examination devoted himself entirely to music and studied with A.B. Marx. His first attempts at composition attracted the attention of Friedrich Wilhelm IV and procured him a travelling grant. He visited Paris, Milan, Rome and Naples, taking singing lessons from Geraldi and Bordogni. On his return to Germany in 1853 he obtained a post at the Cologne Conservatory and in 1858 became organist in Bremen Cathedral and conductor of the Singakademie. He had already composed an oratorio, Jephtha (performed in London in 1856 by Hullah), and in 1875 his opera Edda was successfully produced at Bremen, Hanover and elsewhere. His Bismarckhymne obtained the prize at Dortmund, and he composed a symphony and a large number of part-songs. His cantata ...

Article

[Louis]

(b Stuttgart, April 26, 1806; d Mannheim, June 28, 1872). German composer, conductor and teacher. In 1824 he went to Tübingen to study theology, but on leaving the seminary he set up as a music teacher; Princess Elisabeth of Württemberg was among his earliest pupils. He soon moved back to Stuttgart where his first large-scale work, the opera Ryno, was produced in 1833 and published soon afterwards. Hetsch became director of music at Heidelberg in 1846, and in 1856 director of the court theatre at Mannheim, where he had wider scope for his talents and where he remained until his death. The University of Tübingen gave him an honorary doctorate in 1867.

One of Hetsch’s lifelong friends was the poet Eduard Mörike, with whom he shared an enthusiasm for Mozart and an antipathy to Wagner. His settings of the poems in Mörike’s novella Maler Nolten (1832) were published in an appendix to the novella, and Mörike dedicated his short story ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

(Luise)

(b Mainz, April 26, 1773; d Berlin, April 29, 1809). German singer. She studied singing in Würzburg with Dominicus Steffani and in Mainz with Righini, and sang under Mozart at Frankfurt in 1790; her stage début was in 1791. After a guest appearance at Hamburg in 1793 she became chamber and theatre singer at the Berlin court and from ...

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

(b nr Heidelberg, 1577; d Amsterdam, March 19, 1649). Dutch polymath and writer on music of German birth . He received a master’s degree and a doctorate from the University of Leiden. He became rector of the grammar school at Dordrecht in 1600 and director of the theological college at Leiden in 1615 but in 1619 he was suspended as an Arminian. He held professorships at the University of Leiden and at the newly established Athenaeum Illustre, Amsterdam. When he was in England in 1629 Charles I granted him a private audience in recognition of his learning.

Vossius wrote many theological, philological and historical works, a complete edition of which was published in six volumes over 40 years after his death (Amsterdam, 1695–1701). Five of his works (all published at Amsterdam) contain observations on music: De theologia gentili (1642); De artis poeticae natura et constitutione (...

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

(b Chemnitz, April 23, 1516; d Meissen, July 15, 1571). German poet. He studied at the Leipzig Thomasschule in 1535 and at Wittenberg in 1536. From 1536 to 1538 he taught in Chemnitz and in 1539 he was deputy headmaster in Freiberg. From 1539 to 1543 he was in Italy; he matriculated at Bologna University in 1541. After a period as private tutor at Schloss Beichlingen, Thuringia, in 1543, and in Strasbourg in 1544, he became rector of the Landschule of St Afra, Meissen, at which Michael Vogt and Wolfgang Figulus were Kantors from 1549 to 1551 and from 1551 to 1588 respectively. On 7 December Fabricius was crowned Poet Laureate by Emperor Maximilian II at the Reichstag in Speyer and raised to the aristocracy.

Although Fabricius was not himself a musician he actively encouraged music at his school. Some of his own hymns and odes were set to music by composers including Martin Agricola, Johann Walter, Le Maistre, Scandello, Reusch and Figulus. Reusch set not only hymns and odes (...

Article

James Deaville

(Heinrich )

(b Brunswick, Sept 5, 1820; d Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 16, 1886). German pianist, composer, critic and teacher. He quickly developed as a pianist and was sent to Vienna, where he studied the piano with C.M. von Bocklet and theory with Sechter and Seyfried. After a further two years in Brunswick, he settled in 1845 in Königsberg, where he initially worked in the theatre and conducted the Singverein. From 1847 Köhler devoted himself exclusively to piano pedagogy and to writing about music. He was music critic for the Hartungsche Zeitung for almost 40 years (1849–86), and contributed to Signale from 1844 until his death. His correspondence articles from Königsberg for Brendel's Neue Zeitschrift für Musik brought him to the attention of Liszt and Wagner in 1852, but it was his first book, Die Melodie der Sprache (1853), that established him as one of the leading New German writers, a reputation substantiated by his many journal articles, newspaper reviews and books of the 1850s and 60s. He also proposed the idea behind the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein, which he, Liszt and Brendel (among others) developed at the ...

Article

George Grove

revised by David Charlton

(b Grossleesen, nr Danzig, June 17, 1822; d Sondershausen, Dec 13, 1896). German violinist, conductor and writer on music . He received his early musical education at home, and on 3 April 1843 became one of the first pupils of the Leipzig Conservatory, where his teachers were Mendelssohn, Hauptmann and David. After graduating in 1846 he played first violin in the Leipzig Gewandhaus, various theatre orchestras and in the Euterpe concerts. Following concert tours and a period in Halle playing under Robert Franz, in 1850 he went at Schumann's invitation to Düsseldorf, where he worked as a violinist and teacher, also becoming a family friend of the Schumanns and personal assistant and amanuensis to the composer. In May 1852 he moved to Bonn and conducted the recently founded Concordia choral society and later the Beethovenverein. Three years later he found a more advantageous position at Dresden, and began to concentrate on music research, without however giving up playing and teaching. He published music criticism in the ...

Article

(b Dessau, Nov 27, 1794; d Cologne, Feb 24, 1867). German music critic, writer and teacher. After participating in the Napoleonic Wars, he studied philology in Berlin, had a notable career as teacher and school director that included 26 years in Wesel, and moved in 1850 to Cologne to become music critic of the Kölnische Zeitung and to found the Rheinische (later Niederrheinische) Musikzeitung, which he edited and to which he contributed until his death. His writings, distinguished by their musical acuity and vivid expressiveness, strove to raise the public's musical standards and served as a voice for the lower Rhineland.

Bischoff venerated certain values in the music of the past as representing the highest in musical art. His writings reflect the then growing enthusiasm for Handel and Bach, while his aesthetic ideals were realized in the music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. He held an ambivalent position towards Romantic music, admiring its expressive qualities but decrying a perceived decline in the accessibility, formal integrity and universality that he most valued. While he supported contemporary composers active in Cologne (e.g. Ferdinand Hiller, Carl Reinecke, Eduard Franck, Reinthaler, Bargiel and Bruch), his encounter with the progressive New German School of Liszt and Wagner, supported by a dedicated band of critics and essayists, impelled him to become one of its first and most outspoken opponents....

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

[Eijcken, Simon van; Eyken, Simon van]

(b ?Brabant; fl early 16th century). Netherlandish music theorist. He was a singer in the chapel of the Duke of Milan, and in 1508 went as tutor to the imperial court in Vienna with Duke Lodovico Sforza's two sons. Quercu wrote a treatise on music, Opusculum musices (Vienna, 1509); several copies of each of the four editions survive. It was probably used in the musical education of the duke's sons. The first part, ‘Musica plana’, deals with the modes, intervals, note names, solmization and solmization syllables, and mutation. The second part, ‘Musica mensuralis’, deals with note lengths, rests, ligatures, mensuration signs, alteration, imperfection and mensural proportions. The third part, ‘Contrapunctus’, considers consonances, dissonances and polyphonic writing. His teaching is illustrated with many music examples, though no authorities are named. Quercu also published a book of prayers and monodic liturgical songs of the Paduan rite, Vigiliae cum vesperis et exequiis mortuorum annexis canticis...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

(b Bleckede, Hanover, Nov 16, 1810; d Schwerin, April 3, 1882). German conductor and composer. He learnt the piano at an early age and played chamber music at home before moving to Schwerin, where he studied thoroughbass with Friedrich Lührss, the piano with Paul Aron and George Rettberg as well as the violin and flute; he joined the theatre orchestra as second flautist, later becoming violist and first violinist. Due to the success of his song Ach, wie wärs möglich dann the Grand Duke Paul Friedrich von Mecklenburg-Schwerin invited him to court. In 1832 he went to Berlin for further instruction in counterpoint with Joseph Birnbach; he composed more songs, instrumental music and an opera Die Flucht nach der Schweiz, which was first performed on 26 February 1839. He studied counterpoint with Sechter in Vienna (1841–3) and was active in Switzerland before making a trip to Paris to study orchestration with Halévy and vocal writing with Bordogni. His best-known opera, ...

Article

(b Lahm, nr Kronach, Sept 8, 1767; d Berlin, Sept 10, 1845). German composer and theatre manager. After spending his childhood in Gotha, where his father was a government official, and further education at Göttingen, he served for a while with the English army before entering Hanoverian service; his opera Glück und Zufall, to his own libretto, was performed at Hanover in 1793. In 1797 he was appointed manager of the court opera in Dessau, whose new house opened on 26 December 1798 with a performance of his opera Bathmendi. Apart from his administrative responsibilities and the works he wrote, he and his wife frequently performed in operas. His Singspiel Die steinerne Braut proved very successful in 1799; a duet from it was published in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung.

In 1800, following financial difficulties after an ambitious and artistically successful guest season at Leipzig, Lichtenstein left Dessau for Vienna, where he became Kapellmeister and artistic director under Baron von Braun, Intendant of the Hoftheater, for three years. ...