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Article

Dietrich Kollmannsperger

(b Karow, nr Genthin, April 13, 1690; d Salzwedel, Altmark, May 23, 1749). German organ builder . He was probably taught by Matthias Hartmann of Magdeburg (a pupil of Arp Schnitger), and he worked for two years with Gottfried Silbermann in Freiberg, together with Zacharias Hildebrandt (from Silesia).

In 1719 Wagner built his first organ (Marienkirche, Berlin). He then set up his business in Berlin and immediately became the leading Prussian organ builder. In the following 30 years he built nearly 50 organs, including several in Berlin (his largest being in the Garnisonkirche), Potsdam (Erste und Zweite Garnisonkirche), Brandenburg (Cathedral (extant), St Katharinen, Gotthardkirche), Magdeburg (Heiliggeistkirche), Wusterhausen (St Peter und Paul; extant), Angermünde (extant), and Trondheim Cathedral, Norway (extant). Wagner's highly individual style derives from his synthesis of north German and Silesian styles with that of Silbermann, combined with his own new ideas and inventions.

Wagner's specifications are based on that of the Silbermann organ in Freiberg Cathedral (...

Article

Dezső Legány

revised by Irina Boga

[Karl]

(b Szászsebes, Hungary [now Sebeş, Romania], May 28, 1830; d Venice, Italy, May 11, 1845). Romanian pianist and composer of Hungarian and German descent. He was a child prodigy and his piano playing attracted great attention in Cluj-Napoca in 1835. Filtsch studied initially with his father, a Protestant pastor, and then in 1837 went to Vienna to study with Simon Sechter, August Mittang, and Friderich Wieck. After his début at the Cluj Conservatory, his international début took place in Vienna at Musikverein (1841) with a great success. Upon finishing his studies, Filtsch gave concerts in Vienna, Pest, and Transylvania in 1841. These caused a sensation. He then left for Paris to study with Chopin and, when Chopin fell ill, with Liszt (1841–3). According to Lenz, Liszt said of him, ‘When that young man goes traveling, I shall shut up the shop’. In Paris he played Chopin’s concerto op.11 with the composer (...

Article

Hans-Günter Ottenberg

City in Germany, located on the border with Poland. Only a short time after its foundation in 1253 by Franconian merchants the town had acquired great wealth, in particular through its position as a chief port of reshipment for Hanseatic merchandise in the east German interior and as the site of an important bridge across the middle reaches of the Oder. The town’s musical life was primarily the responsibility of the town council and several churches, including St Marien, St Nikolaus (since 1929 the Friedenskirche) and the Franciscan church. The archives with details of early musical practice were largely destroyed during World War II.

From the early 16th century Frankfurt was one of Germany’s largest printing and publishing centres and the chief port of reshipment for German prints and musical publications destined for northern and eastern Europe. With the foundation in 1506 of its university, the Viadrina, Frankfurt began to develop as a great centre of humanist learning; there was also a prominent law school, and the liberal arts flourished. (The Viadrina was moved to Breslau, now Wrocław, in ...

Article

Koch  

Walter Hüttel

German family of organists and organ builders. Paul Koch the elder (d Zwickau, 1546), from St Joachimsthal (now Jáchymov), Bohemia, went to Zwickau in 1543 and there renovated the organs in St Marien and St Katharinen. Paul Koch the younger (bur. Zwickau, 28 Sept 1580) worked as organist in Zwickau, from 1544 at St Katharinen, and from 1552 at St Marien. He renovated the organ in Weiden. Hans Koch was organist from 1563 to 1568 at the Petrikirche in Freiberg, Saxony. Stephan Koch (d Zwickau, 29 Dec 1590) was organist at St Dorotheen in Vienna in 1564, and later in Annaberg (Erzgebirge), where he married in 1570. From 21 July 1575 he lived as a wealthy citizen and organist and highly esteemed instrument maker in Zwickau. He completed an organ begun by Jakob Weinrebe in Bischofswerda (Christuskirche, 1571) and built instruments in Olomouc (St Mauritius, ...

Article

(b ?Liegnitz [now Legnica], c1494; d after 1527). German theorist. The family residence in Liegnitz is documented from 1381, but the name is absent from the town records begun in 1546. Bogentantz attended the Gymnasium in Goldberg, and in 1508 he matriculated in the faculty of arts of Cologne University, where he may have been the pupil of Cochlaeus and fellow student of Glarean. In 1516 he was granted the status of magister, and he probably taught there for two years in accordance with the faculty regulations. In 1525 he matriculated at Wittenberg University, perhaps to study theology; he returned to Liegnitz in 1527. No documents have been found to support Bauch’s theory that Bogentantz was rector of the parish school of St Peter and St Paul Liegnitz, from about 1530.

Bogentantz wrote a music treatise, Collectanea utriusque cantus … musicam discere cupientibus oppido necessaria (Cologne, 1515...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Strasbourg, Nov 27, 1906). German musicologist. He studied musicology (with Adolf Sandberger), Germanic philology and education at Munich University, where he took the doctorate in 1928 with a dissertation on the evolution of the toccata in the 17th and 18th centuries. He subsequently lectured at the Staatliches Privatmusiklehrer-Seminar in Magdeburg (1929–35), and was concurrently a lecturer at the Salzburg Mozarteum and director of the Zentralinstitut für Mozart-Forschung (1939–45), remaining a member of the institute after relinquishing his directorship. He later lectured at the Nordwestdeutsche Musikakademie in Detmold (1948–53). From 1953 he taught at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, holding a professorship from 1955 and the directorship from 1964 to 1972.

Valentine was editor-in-chief of the Zeitschrift für Musik (1950–55) and co-editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (1955–9). In 1954 he became editor-in-chief of Acta mozartiana, and in ...

Article

Richard Sherr

(Lat.: ‘to be repeated’)

In Western chant, a section to be repeated, such as the refrain in hymns or the last part of the respond of a responsory, which is repeated after the psalm verse. In Ordo romanus I (second half of the 8th century) and later, the term ‘versus ad repetendum’ designated extra psalm verses added as needed to the Mass introit and communion. According to Husmann, the words ‘ad repetendum’ were also used in the Middle Ages for additional tropes to the introit antiphon....

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

revised by Clytus Gottwald

(b Eger, c1525; d after 1605). German diplomat and music theorist. After attending the universities of Königsberg (1545–6), where he may have taught music, and Frankfurt an der Oder (1553–5) he entered the service of the Teutonic Order and was sent as a diplomat in 1557 to Tsar Ivan IV of Russia and in 1559 to King Sigismund II of Poland. In 1559 Horner was invested with an estate in Kurland and in 1568 raised to the nobility; his descendants remained in Kurland until the end of World War I. Horner wrote the treatise De ratione componendi cantus (Königsberg, 1546) and the five-voice song setting Ich armer man kum auf den plan published in Etliche teutsche Liedlein geistlich und weltlich (Königsberg, 1558; ed. P. Kugelmann). The treatise, which names Boethius, Guido of Arezzo, Tinctoris and Gaffurius as authorities, was the first theoretical work printed in Königsberg. Its seven chapters constitute a survey of contemporary music theory that may reflect Horner's class teaching....

Article

E. Fred Flindell

(b Drauensee, nr Elbing, East Prussia [now Elblag, Poland]; fl 1556–73). German lutenist and composer. The only biographical information about him is contained in the foreword to his first and more original publication, Tabulatura continens … quasdam fantasias; cantiones germanicas, italicas ac gallicas; passemezo; choreas et mutetas (RISM 1556³²), in which Drusina referred to his far-ranging travels in Italy while studying the lute; he had probably visited Milan, Padua and Venice. He also quoted an epigram in praise of the lute by Christoph Pannonius, professor at the University of Frankfurt an der Oder; he may have spent some time at the university about 1545–50, although his name does not appear on the matriculation lists (see Kosack). In mid 1573, while staying at the University of Wittenberg, he published Tabulatura continens … quasque cantiones (157325), a transcription into German lute tablature of Melchior Neusidler's two books in Italian tablature (...

Article

Richard D. Green

(b Hameln, Jan 4, 1772; d Heidelberg, March 28, 1840). German legal scholar and amateur musician. After leaving the Gymnasium in Hanover, he began to study law in 1792 at the University of Göttingen, where he may have heard Forkel lecture. In the next year he moved to Königsberg to hear Kant, and in 1794 went to Kiel where he took the doctorate in law (1796) and formed a lasting friendship with Niebuhr. He was appointed professor in 1798 and four years later was called to Jena, where he met Schiller and wrote his principal legal work, System des Pandektenrechts. He moved to Heidelberg in 1805 to assume a chair of law and remained there for the rest of his life. The War of Liberation inspired him to write a collection of essays in 1814 urging codification of German laws: he was challenged by Savigny in a treatise which formulated the leading ideas of the historical school of law....

Article

Walter Blankenburg

(b Holstein; fl 1567–84; d ?Riga). German composer. In 1567 he matriculated at Greifswald University; adjoined to his name was the indication ‘Philorhodus, Holsata’, but it cannot now be determined what place of origin in Holstein this signified (possibly Rostock). The same document makes clear that he was already a musician of talent. About 1570 he became Kantor at the Gymnasium at Thorn (now Toruń, Poland) and by 1576 was Kantor of Riga Cathedral, where he was also very active as a composer.

Bucenus composed a six-part Passio Domini Jesu Christi (Stettin, 1578, inc.). His work and a Passion by Ludwig Daser published in the same year are the last Lutheran settings to Latin words; like those of Balthasar Resinarius and Johannes Galliculus they used a composite version rather than the words of a single gospel. Bucenus set the opening and closing choruses, the Saviour’s words and the Evangelist’s narration all in six parts, and this may be the reason for Kadès’ faulting it as unexpressive. In ...

Article

Walter Blankenburg

[Johannes]

(b Nabburg, Upper Palatinate, c1525; d Leubnitz, nr Dresden, Nov 1583). German composer and clergyman. He was not born at Neuburg, in the Palatinate (as stated in: he matriculated at Wittenberg University in 1550, and he is listed in the university register as a native of Nabburg. He had already – probably in 1549 – settled at Wittenberg, with its strong associations with Luther, and become a Kantor. He stayed there, gaining wide respect for his diverse scholarly interests, until in 1553 Philipp Melanchthon recommended him as successor to the first Protestant Kantor of the Kreuzkirche and its school at Dresden. He remained there until 1560; during his tenure the school was rebuilt in the form in which it survived until 1812. In 1560 Selner was ordained and became pastor at Leubnitz. In 1577 he was a signatory to the ‘Concordienformel’, the official formulation of the Lutheran creed. None of his compositions has survived. Five manuscript volumes of Latin motets, written by him in ...

Article

Gordon A. Anderson

[Keckius]

(b Giengen an der Brenz, c1400; d Rome, June 29, 1450). German theologian and writer. He studied theology, philosophy and the liberal arts at the University of Vienna from 1422 to 1429, and as a Master of Arts lectured there in mathematics, philosophy and theory from 1429 to 1431. In 1434 he was at Munich, where he held a benefice at the Peterskirche, and in 1441 he studied at Basle, gaining a doctorate in theology. Here he taught for about a year and took part in the reform Council of Basle. In 1442 he joined the Benedictine Order at Tegernsee, a monastery well known at that time for its practice of the arts and sciences; there in that year Keck wrote his treatise Introductorium musicae (GerbertS, iii, 319–29), describing himself as professor of the arts and sacred theology. In 1450 he undertook a penitential pilgrimage to Rome, but died of the plague soon after his arrival....

Article

Stephen Keyl

(Ger.: ‘tenor song’)

The principal type of German polyphonic lied from about 1450 to about 1550. Tenorlieder are characterized by a cantus firmus (or ‘tenor’) which frequently consists of a pre-existing melody and is most often found in the tenor part. The cantus firmus is generally surrounded by three contrapuntal voices, giving a total of four parts, though early examples are usually in three parts and late ones sometimes in five or more. Many Tenorlieder are in bar form (AAB).

The Tenorlied seems to have grown out of monophonic traditions derived from Minnesang; its stylistic features were influenced by the 15th-century Franco-Flemish chanson favoured at German courts. At the beginning of the 16th century the Tenorlied attained great popularity, with many fine examples by Hofhaimer, Isaac, Heinrich Finck and others. Works by these composers sometimes begin with voices entering in imitation, though the imitation rarely persists for more than a few bars, and the cantus firmus character of the composition is seldom in doubt. The outstanding composer in the genre was undoubtedly Senfl, whose nearly 250 surviving lieder show sensitivity to text declamation, melodic freshness and a high degree of contrapuntal skill. Lassus also composed Tenorlieder, but by his time the genre was being supplanted by German secular compositions influenced by the villanella and madrigal. Many Lutheran chorale melodies are borrowed from the Tenorlied repertory, and in texture and melodic idiom the Tenorlied exerted a strong influence on the first generation of polyphonic chorale settings....

Article

Victor H. Mattfeld

(b ?Saxony, before 1500; d Kohren, 1544). German composer. He was Kantor at St Marien, Zwickau, from 1521 to 1522; from then until his death he was a member of the Protestant clergy. His seven extant works are all liturgical and appeared only in publications and manuscripts associated with the services of the early Protestant Church; five were included in publications of Georg Rhau. Stylistically Cellarius belonged to the second generation of German polyphonic composers strongly influenced by the Franco-Flemish procedures of polyphonic composition who continued to uphold tradition in a conservative manner. His psalm settings often contain fauxbourdon, and although the number of his works is small, each reveals a high mastery of polyphonic writing.

Article

Kerala J. Snyder

(b Schlackenwerth, nr Carlsbad [now Karlovy Vary], c1635; d ?Schlackenwerth, after July 23, 1686). German composer of Bohemian birth. Schlackenwerth was the Bohemian residence of the dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg, and Pfleger had found employment there as Kapellmeister to Duke Julius Heinrich by the time he published his op.1 in 1661. In 1662 he went to Güstrow as vice-Kapellmeister to Duke Gustav Adolph of Mecklenburg. He was kept very busy as a composer there and wrote 89 sacred concertos in 1664 alone. In 1665 he was appointed Kapellmeister to the Schleswig-Holstein court at Gottorf and was commissioned to compose the ceremonial music for the opening of the University of Kiel. He left there on 16 May 1673, but his destination is unknown; his successor was Johann Theile. By 23 July 1686 he had returned to Schlackenwerth and was once again Kapellmeister to the court of Saxe-Lauenburg.

Pfleger’s op.1 is a collection of 18 small sacred concertos to Latin texts, primarily biblical. They are scored for a small ensemble of singers with little instrumental participation other than continuo and are based on Italian models, in both the choice and the treatment of the texts. The four Latin odes for the inauguration of Kiel University are in a stiff, ceremonial style, while the two with German texts are more forward-looking and show similarities to some of Buxtehude’s aria cantatas. The individual works surviving in manuscript were most likely composed at Gottorf. Latin still predominates, but there are more non-biblical, devotional and mixed texts than in op.1. These works are moreover more richly scored, have much more prominent instrumental parts and include more contrapuntal writing. Pfleger dedicated his cycle of 72 cantatas for the church year to the Flensburg city council, so they too may date from his Gottorf years. Many are dramatic dialogues, with both allegorical and biblical characters. Their German texts, based on the appointed gospel for the day, skilfully combine biblical passages, strophic poetry and an occasional chorale, which are set in contrasting arioso, concerto or aria styles....

Article

(b Lauban, Silesia [Lubiń, Poland], 1525–30; d ?Prague, after April 21, 1617). German composer and organist. Biographical details of the organist Kaspar Krumbhorn (b 1542) reveal that Knöfel was Kantor at the Valentin Trotzendorff Lateinschule, a Lutheran institution, at Goldberg (now Złotoryja), Silesia, when he was about 30 years old and Krumbhorn was his pupil. By the time of his marriage, on 21 June 1569, he had become Kapellmeister to Duke Heinrich V of Liegnitz, Brieg and Goldberg. In the preface to his Dulcissimae cantiones (1571), which he dedicated to the duke, he affirmed his allegiance to the Lutheran doctrine that had been adopted by the churches of Breslau (now Wrocław) in the earliest years of the Reformation, and in 1575 he dedicated his Cantus choralis (1575) – a complete setting of the Proper chants for the festivals of the church year – to the Breslau town council. The dedication of his mass on Lassus's ...

Article

Elizabeth Roche

(b Schärding, nr Passau, 1646; d Freising, Feb 7, 1712). German composer and violinist. He is first heard of in 1670, when he entered the service of the Prince-Bishop of Freising as a violinist. After holding various posts at Eichstätt, Regensburg and Passau, he moved in 1683 to the Munich court. The Elector Max Emanuel, recognizing his talent as a composer, sent him to Paris to study with Lully. On his return to Munich in 1685 his post was still that of violinist and chamber musician, but he was also active as a composer. The outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession brought the musical life of the Munich court almost to a standstill, and in 1706 he left Munich to return to Freising, this time as Kapellmeister. Here he continued to write church and chamber music, and also school operas for the students at the episcopal seminary....

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

[Borckhart, Burchard, Burckhart, Burgardus, Purckhart; Ulrich]

(b Waischenfeld, c1484). German music theorist and theologian. He attended the cathedral school in Bamberg and in 1500 entered Leipzig University where he became Bachelor of Arts in 1507, Master of Arts in 1511 and from 1513 until 1515 taught as Master of Law. In 1515 he joined the theology faculty, but left Leipzig in 1516 and returned to Bamberg, where he was court chaplain until 1527 and served the prince-bishops Georg III of Limburg and Weigand von Redwitz. In Bamberg he got to know Tilman Riemenschneider and Albrecht Dürer and in 1517, 1518 and 1520 had contact with von Hutten. The publication of Burchardi’s Ein schöner Dialog von dem christlichen Glauben (Bamberg, 1527), in which he presented a German translation of his treatise Dialogus de fide christiana (Bamberg, 1522), a work in the spirit of Erasmus’s reforming zeal, led to his dismissal from the service of the prince-bishops. He resumed his teaching at Leipzig University and in ...

Article

Max Zulauf

(b in or nr Messkirch, Baden, c1590; d Muri, Aargau, Switzerland, c1660). German composer and organist resident in Switzerland. He is referred to as an organist at Messkirch in 1621, and he was probably also Kapellmeister of the private chapel of Count Wratislaus von Fürstenberg. He went on a pilgrimage to Einsiedeln in 1630. In 1638, on the recommendation of the Bishop of Konstanz, he was appointed organist of St Leodegar und Mauritius, Lucerne. In 1655 the Lucerne council agreed to his entering the monastery at Muri, where he was still living in 1657. His music is characterized by simple harmony, straightforward melodic lines and clear counterpoint. Venetian influence can be seen in the preference for polychoral writing. Johann Donfrid thought highly enough of his music to include six works in his celebrated anthologies of the 1620s.