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(b Berlin, Nov 29, 1866; d Potsdam, Aug 20, 1931). German composer. He studied at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik under Friedrich Kiel (1882–5) and completed his studies in Bargiel’s masterclass at the Preussische Akademie der Künste, Berlin (1885–8). He briefly served as the conductor of the Mannheim Musikverein in 1891, before becoming conductor of the Mannheim-Ludwigshafen Lehrergesangverein (1891–4). In 1894 he moved to Dresden, where he held the posts of Liedermeister of the Dresdner Liedertafel (until 1901) and director of the Dresdner Bachverein (1896–7). In 1902 he founded the Dresdner Chorverein. He taught composition, instrumentation and score-reading at the Cologne conservatory (1903–8), was the director of the Ducal Orchestral School in Weimar (1908–16), becoming professor there in 1910, and was later director of the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt (1916–23). He was appointed Second Permanent Secretary at the Berlin Akademie der Künste in ...


Eric Blom

revised by Gaynor G. Jones

(b Hamburg, March 8, 1859; d Berlin, July 4, 1929). German conductor and composer . He studied the piano, the cello and composition at the Dresden Conservatory and then went to Paris and Vienna for further instruction. After experience as an opera conductor, he became the director of the Wiesbaden Conservatory in 1886, remaining there until 1889. He conducted in St Petersburg from 1891 to 1892 before becoming conductor of the Cäcilienverein in Ludwigshafen. From 1895 he was active in Berlin as a composer and also as critic for the Börsenkurier. He became professor in 1910 and senator of the Academy of the Arts in 1923. From 1920 to 1925 he taught at the Hochschule für Musik. His works include the opera Porzia, based on The Merchant of Venice and produced in Frankfurt in 1916, the choral drama Sängerweihe (1904), the cantata Kampf und Friede (1915...


Vera Grützner

(b Potsdam, July 24, 1902; d Berlin, April 12, 1981). German composer and conductor. He studied the cello with Hugo Becker (1920–25) and composition with Juon (1925–7) at the Berlin Musikhochschule. While still a student he played in, composed for and conducted theatre orchestras. From 1929 to 1969 he taught choral conducting, theory and composition at the Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik in Berlin, where he was appointed professor in 1936 and professor emeritus in 1969. From 1939 to 1959 he conducted the Reblingscher Gesangverein Magdeburg and from 1939 to 1942 also the Magdeburg Cathedral choir. In addition he initiated the city symphony concerts and music festival in Memel (1939–44, now Klaipeda, Lithuania) and conducted the Potsdam City Chorus (1945–8). In 1943 he succeeded Ramin as conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Chorus, a post which he held until 1981.

Chemin-Petit’s oeuvre is stamped by a fundamentally ethical view of music. His style remained unaffected by rapidly changing trends in compositional techniques between ...


George Grove

revised by David Charlton

(b Grossleesen, nr Danzig, June 17, 1822; d Sondershausen, Dec 13, 1896). German violinist, conductor and writer on music . He received his early musical education at home, and on 3 April 1843 became one of the first pupils of the Leipzig Conservatory, where his teachers were Mendelssohn, Hauptmann and David. After graduating in 1846 he played first violin in the Leipzig Gewandhaus, various theatre orchestras and in the Euterpe concerts. Following concert tours and a period in Halle playing under Robert Franz, in 1850 he went at Schumann's invitation to Düsseldorf, where he worked as a violinist and teacher, also becoming a family friend of the Schumanns and personal assistant and amanuensis to the composer. In May 1852 he moved to Bonn and conducted the recently founded Concordia choral society and later the Beethovenverein. Three years later he found a more advantageous position at Dresden, and began to concentrate on music research, without however giving up playing and teaching. He published music criticism in the ...


Gaynor G. Jones

(b Bleckede, Hanover, Nov 16, 1810; d Schwerin, April 3, 1882). German conductor and composer. He learnt the piano at an early age and played chamber music at home before moving to Schwerin, where he studied thoroughbass with Friedrich Lührss, the piano with Paul Aron and George Rettberg as well as the violin and flute; he joined the theatre orchestra as second flautist, later becoming violist and first violinist. Due to the success of his song Ach, wie wärs möglich dann the Grand Duke Paul Friedrich von Mecklenburg-Schwerin invited him to court. In 1832 he went to Berlin for further instruction in counterpoint with Joseph Birnbach; he composed more songs, instrumental music and an opera Die Flucht nach der Schweiz, which was first performed on 26 February 1839. He studied counterpoint with Sechter in Vienna (1841–3) and was active in Switzerland before making a trip to Paris to study orchestration with Halévy and vocal writing with Bordogni. His best-known opera, ...


Imre Fábián

(b Budapest, Jan 26, 1886; d Budapest, Feb 24, 1918). Hungarian piano teacher. He studied the piano with Árpád Szendy, composition with Hans Koessler at the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music, arts at Budapest University and music history in Berlin. He took the doctorate in 1907 at Budapest University (the first music dissertation there) with a dissertation on the evolution of music and was subsequently professor at the Fodor School of Music, Budapest (1910–18). In 1911 he founded, with Bartók and Kodály, the Hungarian Society for New Music (UMZE), which later became the Hungarian section of the ISCM. Kovács was one of the first piano teachers to make use of the results of experimental psychology and to establish a systematic method of music teaching in Hungary. This method concentrated on ear training (anticipating the Leimer-Gieseking method), analysis of sound and touch, practising without the instrument and training the memory; he outlined its principles in his book ...


John Deathridge

(b Munich, Aug 20, 1895; d Bayreuth, Feb 23, 1953). German musicologist. He studied musicology at Munich University, where he received a doctorate in 1924 for his dissertation on Wagner's view of his works. During the emergence of national socialist Germany and the enthusiasm for Wagner that went with it, Strobel turned his attention to sifting and evaluating the vast number of autograph manuscripts owned by the Wagner family. From 1932 he was archivist of the Wahnfried Archives, Bayreuth, and from 1938 director of the short-lived Richard Wagner Forschungsstätte. He wrote extensively on Wagner's sketches and working methods, mostly in short articles for the Bayreuther Festspielführer and local German periodicals, and edited the first publication of some important documents, including the manuscript texts of the Ring and the correspondence between Wagner and Ludwig II. Although his exclusive and largely uncritical devotion to Wagner limited the intellectual perspective of his writings, his work is regarded as an important foundation-stone in Wagner scholarship....


Stephanie Twiehaus

(Friedrich Karl)

(b Berlin, Jan 18, 1840; d Berlin, Dec 31, 1916). German conductor, composer, pianist and teacher. He grew up in an intellectual and artistic environment: his mother, Betty Pistor, had been a friend of Mendelssohn and a pupil of Zelter, while his father was a professor of law in Berlin and a pupil of Friedrich Carl von Savigny. His parents' house was frequented by representatives of the Romantic school, and Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Ludwig Tieck were among his ancestors. He studied piano and composition with Woldemar Bargiel (1850–57), violin with Louis Ries (1852–4) and piano for a short time with Clara Schumann in 1858, with whom from then on he shared a life-long friendship. He studied theology and history at the universities of Berlin and Leipzig (1859–60) and music at the conservatory in Leipzig (1859–61), mainly with Moscheles (piano) and Julius Rietz (composition) and then in private lessons with Reinecke and Hauptmann (...


Helen Metzelaar

[Lize] (Lamina Johanna)

(b Amsterdam, Sept 13, 1877; d Viganello, Feb 26, 1953). Dutch composer and conductor . She studied with Daniël de Lange and Frans Coenen in Amsterdam (piano-teaching certificate 1895) and then with Max Bruch at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik, where from 1908 to 1920 she taught theory and composition – the first woman to do so there. She was also the first woman to win the Mendelssohn State Prize for composition, in 1905. The Berlin PO performed a number of her works: the Serenade (1905), the Ballade for Cello and Orchestra and the Violin Concerto (1908). After conducting the Sängerinnen-Verein of the Deutsche Lyceum-Club, she founded the Berlin Tonkünstlerinnen-Orchester in 1910. In the early 1929s she collaborated with Frederik van Eeden on several stage works. She then founded women’s orchestras in London (1922–3) and New York (1924–5). Both were well received but were forced to disband owing to lack of funds. With the London Women’s SO Kuyper conducted the première of her ...


Nils Grosch

(Ger.: ‘New Realism’, ‘New Objectivity’). Term used since the 1920s for various cultural modernizing trends of the Weimar Republic and to describe the general mood of that period. It was first used in 1923 for an exhibition of post-Expressionist painting by G.F. Hartlaub of Mannheim, and soon appeared in discussions of musical aesthetics. Writers in the journal Melos, for instance, particularly Heinrich Strobel, Erich Doflein and Hans Mersmann, promoted the term for the retreat from ideals of expressivity in post-Expressionist composition and interpretation and for the neo-Baroque style of recent works, particularly by Hindemith, which was felt to be ‘realistic’ and kinetic.

Composers sympathetic to the concept saw in it the means of appealing to a broad public. In 1927 Krenek formulated his views on Neue Sachlichkeit out of his opposition to Expressionism, his chief criticism being that the Expressionist artist was isolated as an individual from his effect on a wide public. For Krenek, as for Weill, Neue Sachlichkeit was primarily defined by the musician’s search for a broader basis of operation, and was characterized by the absence of complexity and by an element of familiarity in both subject and means of expression. Many composers achieved this by incorporating the idioms of contemporary popular dance and light music or jazz, quotations from the classical repertory and Baroque techniques of composition into new works. The self-contained work of art was thus largely rejected in favour of communication, and reference to external subjects and events became a crucial factor. This is particularly evident in music drama: in their first ‘Zeitopern’, Krenek (...


La Wanda Blakeney

(b Erfurt, Germany, Aug 25, 1811; d Magdeburg, Aug 26, 1885). German organist, teacher, composer, and musicologist. After graduating with highest honors from Erfurter Lehrerseminar,Erfurt Teachers Seminary, Ritter studied piano with Hummel and later attended the Institut für die Ausbildung von Organisten und Musiklehrern in Berlin. Although considered one of the great organ virtuosos in Germany, Ritter chose to work primarily as a church organist. He served several churches in Erfurt and eventually held prestigious positions at cathedrals in Merseburg and Magdeburg. Ritter’s interests and abilities extended beyond the realm of church music. He taught organ and piano, edited older keyboard works with the music publisher G.W. Körner, and served as a consultant with organ builders in the construction and renovation of large organs. He also organised concerts, frequently conducting or performing as both an organist and pianist.

Ritter wrote more than 120 compositions, mostly for organ but also for voice, piano, orchestra, and chamber ensembles. He co-founded ...


Alec Hyatt King

(b Kiel, June 16, 1813; d Göttingen, Sept 9, 1869). German philologist, archaeologist and musicographer. After attending the universities of Kiel, Leipzig and Berlin, Jahn rapidly became one of the leading classical scholars of his day, in the study of Greek mythology, in textual criticism – he published editions of Persius and Juvenal – and in archaeology, in which he made a notable contribution to the history of Greek vase-painting. He became professor at Greifswald in 1842 and director of the archaeological museum at Leipzig in 1847, but involvement in the political unrest of 1848–9 caused his dismissal. In 1851 he edited in vocal score the second version (1806) of Beethoven's Leonore. In 1855 he went to Bonn as professor of philology and archaeology and retained this post until shortly before his death.

It is remarkable that such a dedicated career should have left Jahn any time for extended work on music, although in his youth it had rivalled his passion for the classics. While his family had wide musical contacts and he was active as a performer, he seems to have had little academic training in music, which makes his biography of Mozart all the more remarkable an achievement. The preface explains how the idea of writing it came from a conversation with Gustav Hartenstein at Mendelssohn's funeral on ...


Richard D. Green


(b Cologne, March 6, 1793; d Berlin, Sept 9, 1832). German composer. The son of a wine merchant who occasionally played the violin in theatre orchestras, he was essentially self-taught in music. In 1812 he was briefly in Paris, where Choron helped him but Cherubini offered him no encouragement; after six months he returned to Cologne to participate as a conductor and a composer in amateur concerts held in the cathedral. In 1816 he visited Heidelberg, where he profited from the acquaintance of Thibaut; Thibaut recognized Klein's talent but was unsuccessful in obtaining a position for him in the city. Klein was sent officially to Berlin in 1818 to observe C.F. Zelter's pedagogical methods and to apply them at Cologne Cathedral. He decided to remain in Berlin and became associated with the recently founded Musikalische Bildungsanstalt; he was also appointed singing teacher at the University of Berlin. After his marriage in ...


Dorothea Schröder

(b Wolferschwenda, nr Sondershausen, Dec 1, 1712; d Tennstedt, nr Erfurt, Feb 5, 1758). German organist and composer . From 1732 until his death he served the Stadtkirche, Tennstedt, as organist. G.H. Noah, who knew J.S. Bach and came to Tennstedt as Kantor in 1743, possibly encouraged Weber to write a set of 24 preludes and fugues entitled ...


(b Debrno, nr Kralupy nad Vltavou, Sept 18, 1836; d Prague, Sept 1, 1904). Czech writer on music. He was educated in Prague at the Malá Strana grammar school and Prague University (1858–63), where he studied history and Slavonic philology. As a youth he sang alto at St Štěpán and the Týn church and later also sang at the Žofínská Akademie. He was a member of the St Cecilia Society, and while at the university ran first his own quartet and then an octet. From 1863 to 1879 he held posts successively as assistant teacher, tutor and clerk, but then decided to renounce a secure income and devote his energies to the cause of Czech music. He took a leading part in the organization of the Prague Hlahol choir (1864–5, 1876–91) and was on excellent terms with the leading Czech musicians; he was Smetana’s most intimate friend during the composer’s last five years. For his literary work Srb adopted the name Josef Debrnov. He provided German translations for ...


Alan Walker

(b Mainstockheim, July 24, 1833; d Munich, March 30, 1912). German writer and music teacher. The daughter of a wine merchant, she was taught music by the wife of Franz Brendel, the editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. Since the Zeitschrift was a mouthpiece for the New German School, Ramann was brought into contact with Liszt and his circle at an early age. She first taught in Gera, then went to the USA for a few years. In 1858 she founded a music school for women teachers in Glückstadt. After moving to Nuremberg in 1865 she opened a new, enlarged school in collaboration with Ida Volckmann. Her school was one of the first in Germany to combine general philosophical education with music teaching, and drew national attention. In 1890 she sold the school to Liszt’s pupil August Göllerich and moved to Munich.

Ramann wrote a number of books, especially about Liszt, the first of which, a study of the oratorio ...


Horst Leuchtmann

(b Rengersdorf, nr Glatz, Silesia [now Kłodzko, Poland], March 14, 1850; d Berlin, May 24, 1906). German organist, teacher, writer on music and composer. He was the son and pupil of Ignaz Reimann (1820–85), a teacher and church musician, and began conducting orchestras and choirs as a schoolboy. At his father’s wish he studied classical philology in Breslau from 1870 to 1874, during which period he also studied the organ with Moritz Brosig and directed the choral society Leopoldina. He graduated with the dissertation Quaestiones metricae in 1875 and spent the next nine years as a teacher in Strehlen, Wohlau, Ratibor and Berlin, becoming headmaster of the Gleiwitz grammar school in 1885. Following an argument with the authorities he changed both his profession and his religion, and after living privately in Leipzig for a year he went again to Berlin in 1887.

During his first stay in Berlin, Reimann had become well known as a writer (under the pseudonym Erich Reinhardt) in the ...


John Rutter

revised by Manfred Fensterer

(b Belzig, Jan 31, 1798; d Dresden, Nov 7, 1859). German composer, conductor and teacher. He was the eldest son of Christian Gottlieb Reissiger, organist and choirmaster at Belzig, and had his first violin and piano lessons from his father. At the age of ten he was giving public piano recitals and accompanying community hymn-singing on the organ. From 1811 to 1818 he was a pupil at the Thomasschule in Leipzig, where he studied the piano and composition with Schicht, the musical director, as well as taking classes in the violin, viola and singing. He began studying theology at the University of Leipzig; in the same year Schicht advised him to abandon these studies in favour of a musical career, and two years later awarded him a bursary to further his musical studies elsewhere. In 1821 Reissiger left Leipzig for Vienna, where he took theory lessons from Salieri, and in ...


Franz Gehring, E.M. Oakeley, and Michael Musgrave

German family of musicians.

(b Alt-Waltersdorf, nr Zittau, Jan 3, 1786; d Dessau, Nov 23, 1853). Composer, conductor and teacher. He learnt the piano from his father, Johann Gottlob Schneider (1753–1840), and began composing at a very early age. In 1798 he entered the Zittau Gymnasium and studied music with Schönfelder and Unger, already producing large-scale works, symphonies, masses and opera. In 1804 he published his first works, a set of three piano sonatas, and in the following year he entered the University of Leipzig to continue his musical studies; here he came into contact with A.E. Müller, J.G. Schlicht and J.F. Rochlitz. In 1806 he became singing teacher at the Ratsfreischule, in 1807 organist of the Universitätskirche, in 1810 director of the Secondaschen Opera Company, in 1812 organist of the Thomaskirche, in 1816 conductor of the Singakademie, and in 1817 musical director of the city theatre. His performance of Beethoven’s Fifth Piano Concerto in Leipzig on ...



Hans-Christian Müller, Frank Daunton, and Clifford Caesar

German firm of music publishers. It was founded by Bernhard Schott (b Eltville, 10 Aug 1748; d Sandhof, nr Heidesheim, 26 April 1809) in Mainz. Eitner gave 1770 as the year of foundation, and the firm celebrated its bicentenary in 1970, but the publishing house was probably not founded until 1780, when Schott was granted a privilegium exclusivum and the title of music engraver to the court of the elector at Mainz. Schott had studied from 1768 to 1771 at the University of Mainz (graduating as magister artium), was clarinettist in a Strasbourg regiment from 1771 to 1773 and travelled in the Netherlands and England; in addition to his musical education, he gained a knowledge of copperplate engraving and particularly of music engraving. He was thus more thoroughly trained for the profession of music publishing than many of his contemporaries. He began his publishing venture with editions of the works of Abbé Vogler and his circle and with the composers for the Hofkapelle at Mainz, especially the works of G.A. Kreusser and J.F.X. Sterkel. Above all he brought out music for which there was a popular demand, such as piano scores and arrangements of popular operas; he published the first piano scores of Mozart’s ...