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Charles Plummeridge

Music is one of the oldest of school subjects – the long tradition of musical studies as a valued component of a liberal or general education can be traced back to the earliest civilizations and classical cultures – yet its place in education has often been uncertain and sometimes the topic of controversy. At certain periods in history the performing arts have been thought of as social rather than educational activities, and therefore of only marginal significance in schools. On occasion, influential figures have voiced strong opposition to music on the grounds that the arts are mere entertainment and do not warrant attention in institutions where the chief concern should be the cultivation of intellectual capacity.

A survey of national educational systems reveals that it is now surprisingly rare to find schools where musical pursuits, of one sort or another, do not feature as part of the regular programme. In most countries children are likely to receive some type of musical instruction within the context of their general education. During the 20th century there was a worldwide expansion in instrumental tuition and increasing opportunities for pupils of all ages to participate in a range of corporate activities; many schools are known for their choirs, orchestras and bands, some of which perform to a very high standard. Even so, provision is extremely variable both within and across systems. Opinion remains divided over the educational value of music; consequently, any consideration of its position in schools not only raises issues about how the subject is organized and taught, but also more general questions about the nature and purpose of education itself....



Ruth Steiner

revised by Keith Falconer

(from Lat. laudes: ‘praises’)

One of the services of the Divine Office, traditionally sung during the gradual brightening of the sky that precedes sunrise. Sometimes called ‘matutina laus’ or ‘matutini’, Lauds has its origins in the morning prayer of the early Church: the ‘cathedral’ tradition of the early Office cultivated a service held at daybreak consisting of fixed psalms (the ‘Lauds’ psalms), prayers and canticles. Fixed psalms are characteristic of Lauds in some eastern Churches, as for example in the Byzantine morning office Orthros, but to a limited extent only in the West.

In its modern western form, the service begins with five selections of biblical poetry joining the praise of God and that of the new light. Each of the five is prefaced and followed by an antiphon, often a Proper one linking the theme of the day with that of the hour. The five selections for most Sundays and feasts are as follows (the numbering is that of the Vulgate): Psalm xcii, ...


Ruth Steiner

revised by Keith Falconer

(from Lat. completus: ‘completed’)

One of the services of the Divine Office. Traditionally performed at the end of the day, Compline seems to have originated as a form of prayer before going to bed; this was once the purpose of Vespers, with which it shares common theological themes, but Compline was never as variable or as imposing as its earlier counterpart. Basil the Great (d 379) mentioned a form of Compline, perhaps still very rudimentary, in his so-called Longer Rules. Both he and the monastic rule written for Arles by St Aurelian (bishop 546–51) referred to the singing of Psalm xc (Vulgate numbering) during the Office. Two very early Western sources, the Ordo monasterii attributed to Alypius of Thegaste and the Institutiones of John Cassian, imply the singing of fixed psalms. It is perhaps because of this long-established tradition that the Rule of St Benedict (c530) excludes the service from its regular course of psalms....


Beatriz Martínez del Fresno

(b Cañizar, Guadalajara, July 16, 1702; d Oviedo, May 4, 1774). Spanish composer. From 1714 to 1724 he was at Toledo Cathedral, where he performed with a small group of boy singers (the ‘seise’) and was a pupil of Miguel de Ambiela and probably also of the organists Jacinto del Río, Matías Solana and Joaquín Martínez de la Roca. On 24 May 1724 he was appointed maestro de capilla of Oviedo Cathedral. He held the post for almost half a century, during which time the cathedral experienced a golden period, in terms of both religious activity and musical composition. In April 1735 he was ordained priest. Villaverde Redondo may have harboured anti-Italian sentiments for he refused to adapt two masses and some vespers which the precentor of Oviedo Cathedral had brought from Italy. Similar behaviour was recorded in the chapter records of 1751, 1755 and 1757.

Of the 179 works attributed to Villaverde Redondo in various inventories, only 14 survive, in the cathedrals of Oviedo, Astorga and Zamora, and in Piedrahita, Avila. The surviving works, all sacred, represent a number of compositional styles: ...



Robert Falck

French city. It is in Northern France, capital of the modern département of Pas-de-Calais, formerly the province of Artois. From the 12th century Arras was an important commercial centre and, increasingly in the 13th century, a bastion of the urban middle class. Much of its activity as a literary and musical centre originated with the Confrérie des Jongleurs et des Bourgeois d’Arras, a lay religious guild whose existence is documented from the last decade of the 12th century to about the mid-14th. During a plague in Arras (according to local legend) the Virgin Mary appeared separately to two jongleurs, Pierre Normand and Itier of Brabant, telling them to go to Arras and there reconcile their differences before Bishop Lambert. When they did this in the church of Notre Dame in Arras the Virgin appeared again and gave them a candle (the sainte chandelle); its wax was poured into the water used to treat the wounds of the plague-stricken, and they were miraculously healed. This prompted the Confrérie; and although written accounts of the miracle in both Latin and French place it at the beginning of the 12th century, the Confrérie was more probably founded nearer the end of the century....


Pablo L. Rodríguez

(bap. Berlanga de Duero, May 20, 1731; d Madrid, Aug 7, 1805).Spanish composer and maestro de capilla. He may have trained at the Palencia Cathedral, where his uncle, Manuel Tajueco, was organist. Up until 1752 he held the post of organist at the collegiate church of Berlanga de Duero (Soria), but in that year he took up the position of second organist of the Palencia Cathedral on an interim basis. Between 1754 and 1755 he competed unsuccessfully for various posts as organist and maestro de capilla in Osma, Segovia and Zamora. In December 1755 he was named maestro de capilla of León Cathedral, a position in which he encountered a number of problems. Following a series of cautions, the León town council dismissed him in 1758. He fought his dismissal in court, and after a lengthy process was awarded compensation and reinstatement in his post in January 1768...


Paul Frederick Cutter, Brad Maiani, Davitt Moroney and John Caldwell

[Great responsory of Matins and Vespers; responsorium prolixum]

Paul Frederick Cutter, assisted by Brad Maiani

A category of Western chant serving at Matins and monastic Vespers as musical postludes to the reading of lessons, as the gradual and alleluia do at the Mass. Indeed, responsories make up the greater part of Matins, and in the total repertory of Roman chant are surpassed in quantity only by Office antiphons. From about 600 in their earliest musical source, the Hartker manuscript dating from about 1000 (PalMus, 2nd ser., i, 1900, 2/1970), the number of responsories increased to nearly 1000 in the 13th-century Worcester Antiphoner (PalMus, 1st ser., xii, 1922/R).

The responsories of the Office (like the gradual and alleluia of the Mass) are termed responsorial chants because in them choir responds with a refrain to verses sung by a cantor. In method of delivery they are clearly related to responsorial psalmody, although it is important that a distinction be maintained between the more ancient practice of responsorial psalm singing and the specific liturgical genre that bears its name....


Luminita Florea

( fl 1351–92). English friar . He was from the Custody of Bristol and was the author-compiler of the Quatuor principalia musice ( GB-Ob Digby 90; CoussemakerS, iv, 200–98; shortened version in GB-Lbl Cotton Tiberius B.IX, ante f. 204-214r; CoussemakerS, iii, 334–64) and the scribe, maker and owner of the earliest extant copy of this work, completed at Oxford on 4 August 1351 and donated by John to the Oxford Franciscans in 1388 with the assent of Thomas de Kingsbury, the 26th provincial minister of the Franciscan order in England. Another book of which John was the author-compiler, scribe, maker and owner, containing the astronomical treatise De situ universorum and two smaller tracts ( GB-Mch 6681), was compiled some time between 1356 (or 1357) and (possibly) 1371, and it includes an explicit date of 1392; several passages in this work indicate that he had been at the Oxford Franciscan convent on ...


Miguel-Ángel Marín


(bap. Barcelona, Sept 21, 1683; d Seville, Dec 12, 1767). Spanish composer and music theorist. He came from a family of musicians, and was educated at Barcelona Cathedral. At the turn of the 18th century he was a singer there and was taught by Francisco Valls. During this time the young Rabassa must have been influenced by the Austrian and Italian musicians employed at the court of Archduke Carlos III, which had temporarily settled in Barcelona during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). On 10 March 1713 Rabassa was appointed maestro de capilla at Vich Cathedral, but on 24 May the following year he moved to Valencia Cathedral as maestro. On 9 June 1724 he finally became maestro at Seville Cathedral, where Philip V's court settled from 1729 to 1733. Rabassa remained there until his retirement in 1757, although he continued to compose music for the cathedral until his death....



Michel Huglo

[tonal] (Lat. tonarius, tonarium, tonale, toni, octo toni, intonarium, intonarius; Ger. Tonar; Fr. tonaire)

Liturgical book of the Western Christian Church in which the antiphons of the Office and the Mass and, by extension, the responsories and even other chants are classified according to the eight psalm tones of Gregorian chant. Tonaries are theoretically self-contained (e.g. the libellus of F-ME 351, ff.66v–75v), but were often copied in other liturgical books such as antiphoners, graduals, tropers and prosers, and in collections of musical treatises. Their terminology, of Byzantine origin, laid the foundations for the vocabulary of modal theory, in which the standard description of the church modes was developed in the 11th and 12th centuries through the division of the octave into a 4th and a 5th. In the absence of precise melodic notation, the tonary was indispensible to the memorization of the psalmodic endings for each of the eight tones. It was an important adjunct to the antiphoner during the latter's dissemination at the end of the 8th century, and its prolonged use in German-speaking areas until the end of the 13th century may be attributed to the continued need to memorize the chant....


John Stevens, Ardis Butterfield and Theodore Karp

Lyric poets or poet-musicians of France in the 12th and 13th centuries. It is customary to describe as troubadours those poets who worked in the south of France and wrote in Provençal, the langue d’oc, whereas the trouvères worked in the north of France and wrote in French, the langue d’oil.

John Stevens, revised by Ardis Butterfield

The troubadours were the earliest and most significant exponents of the arts of music and poetry in medieval Western vernacular culture. Their influence spread throughout the Middle Ages and beyond into French (the trouvères, see §II below), German, Italian, Spanish, English and other European languages.

The first centre of troubadour song seems to have been Poitiers, but the main area extended from the Atlantic coast south of Bordeaux in the west, to the Alps bordering on Italy in the east. There were also ‘schools’ of troubadours in northern Italy itself and in Catalonia. Their influence, of course, spread much more widely. Pillet and Carstens (...


José-Máximo Leza Cruz

(Melchor de)

(b Calatayud, bap. Jan 6, 1702; d Madrid, July 11, 1768). Spanish composer and organist. Born to a family of musicians, he began his musical training under his father José Antonio Nebra (b La Hoz de la Vieja, bap. 23 Nov 1672; d Cuenca, 4 Dec 1748), who had settled in Cuenca as cathedral organist and teacher of the choirboys (1711–29) and later became maestro de capilla (1729–48). His two brothers were also musicians: Francisco Javier (b Calatayud, 16 April 1705; d Cuenca, 4 July 1741) was organist at La Seo, Zaragoza (1727–9), and then in Cuenca (1729–41); Joaquín (b Calatayud, bap. 21 May 1709; d Zaragoza, 16 Aug 1782) was organist at La Seo from 1730 until his death.

José de Nebra soon moved to Madrid. In 1719 he is mentioned as organist of the Descalzas Reales convent, where the ...


Rita Benton

This article provides a survey of institutional libraries containing source materials of Western music. It does not deal with libraries of recorded sound, with privately owned libraries, with collections of instruments, or in a substantive way with collections of non-Western or traditional materials (which are referred to in entries on the cultures concerned). See also Archives and music; Collections, private; International Association of Music Information Centres; Sound archives; Instruments, collections of.

The English term ‘library’, related to the Latin liber for book (the words in most Western languages, Fr. bibliothèque, Ger. Bibliothek and It. biblioteca, derive from the Greek biblos for book and thēkufor container), generally stands for a collection or repository of books. In contradistinction, an archive (often used in the plural) is defined as an organized body of records, often of an official or governmental nature, or the place where they are stored (see Archives and music...



Harold S. Powers, Frans Wiering, James Porter, James Cowdery, Richard Widdess, Ruth Davis, Marc Perlman, Stephen Jones and Allan Marett

(from Lat. modus: ‘measure’‘standard’ ‘manner’‘way’)

A term in Western music theory with three main applications, all connected with the above meanings of modus: the relationship between the note values longa and brevis in late medieval notation; interval, in early medieval theory; and, most significantly, a concept involving scale type and melody type. The term ‘mode’ has always been used to designate classes of melodies, and since the 20th century to designate certain kinds of norm or model for composition or improvisation as well. Certain phenomena in folksong and in non-Western music are related to this last meaning, and are discussed below in §§IV and V. The word is also used in acoustical parlance to denote a particular pattern of vibrations in which a system can oscillate in a stable way; see Sound, §5, (ii). For a discussion of mode in relation to ancient Greek theory see Greece, §I, 6.

Harold S. Powers, revised by Frans Wiering...


Stanley Boorman, John A. Emerson, David Hiley, David Fallows, Thomas B. Payne, Elizabeth Aubrey, Lorenz Welker, Manuel Pedro Ferreira, Ernest H. Sanders, Peter M. Lefferts, Ursula Günther, Gilbert Reaney, Kurt von Fischer, Gianluca D’Agostino, Charles Hamm, Jerry Call and Herbert Kellman

A manuscript source is one that is written by hand. Before the invention of printing, music was preserved either by oral transmission or by MS copies. There is no reason to believe that oral transmission preserves the same music for more than a few centuries, at least in the West, so that all our knowledge of medieval and early Renaissance music depends on MSS. From the start of printing until the work of Petrucci in 1501, almost all printed music was monophonic, mostly chant: even thereafter, however, there has remained a living tradition of the MS copying of certain repertories where printing would not have been economically feasible.

The present article comprises a preliminary discussion of the nature of MS sources and their significance for present-day musical research, followed by a series of sections that review the character and repertory of the main classes of MS in use before 1600...