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Calvin Bower

[Flavius Cassiodorus Magnus Aurelius Senator]

(b Scylacium [Scylletium; now Squillace, Calabria], c485 ce; d Vivarium [now Stalleti], nr Scylacium, c580 ce. Roman statesman and writer. A member of an ancient patrician family, Cassiodorus was a representative of the Roman senatorial class who worked with Ostrogothic rulers in their administration of Roman government during the 6th century ce. He spent the early part of his life trying to preserve Greco-Roman cultural traditions even though the necessary institutions were crumbling at every hand. His Roman education in the liberal arts prepared him well, for shortly after 500 he entered public life, holding office for more than a third of a century during a stormy and dangerous period. His rhetorical flair won him favour with Theodoric the Ostrogoth, and in 506 he was made quaestor sacri palatii; in 514 he became consul, and when Boethius fell from favour in 523, Cassiodorus was appointed magister officiorum...


James W. McKinnon

[Ephrem the Syrian]

(b Nisibis [now Nusaybin], c309; d Edessa [now Urfa], June 9, 373). Exegete, preacher and poet. He was known by the sobriquet ‘the lyre of the Holy Spirit’. Born to Christian parents in Nisibis, he became a deacon before 338; unlike the majority of his outstanding Greek and Latin patristic contemporaries who were bishops, he remained a deacon and spent his life preaching and teaching. He left Nisibis sometime after the Persians captured it in 363, moving to Edessa where he stayed for the rest of his life, possibly establishing a theological school there. He was a figure of such immense influence that soon after his death his biography was much elaborated with apocryphal events, and his literary output was greatly expanded by spurious works. Modern scholars such as Edmund Beck and Bernard Outtier have arrived at a reliable biography, and Beck has edited all the authentic Syriac works....


Frank Traficante

A tuning name which, together with others such as ‘viol way’, ‘lute way’, ‘plain way’, ‘Allfonso way’, ‘lyra way’ and ‘high harp way’, is found in 17th-century tablatures for the Lyra viol. These terms refer to certain lyra viol tunings, which, because of their wide use, were recognizable by name alone without the need for specific tuning instructions. This was true, however, for only a few of the nearly 60 tunings whose use has been documented.

‘Harp way’ includes a triad among the six open-string viol pitches. This tuning appears in two forms, one calling for a major triad (‘harp way sharp’, that is, D–G–d–g–b–d′), and one for a minor triad (‘harp way flat’, that is, D–G–d–g–b ♭–d′). ‘High harp way’ also appears in the major (‘high harp way sharp’, that is, DAdf♯–ad′) and minor (‘high harp way flat, that is, ...


[Joseph Anton ]

(b Manětín, Bohemia, Nov 27, 1691, or Pilsen, c1690; d Freising, Bavaria, Sept 17, 1732). Czech composer . He may be identified with the son Jiří Josef born to Jaroslav Plánický, teacher and organist in Manětín, on 27 November 1691; but in a later document from Countess Maria Gabriela Lažanska (15 October 1720) he is called ‘königlicher Kreys-Stadt Pilssen im Königreich Böhmen Patritius’. Countess Lažanska employed him as private tutor for her children and at her small court he met the composers Mauritius Vogt and Gunther Jacob. Probably he was a pupil of Vogt, who was a theorist. With high recommendations from the countess, Plánický travelled in October 1720 in Bohemia, Moravia and Austria. The presence of one of his compositions (a movement from a motet) in Göttweig Abbey suggests that he proceeded from Vienna to Germany, where in 1722 he seems to have been in Freising (now married; he arrived with his brother-in-law, the court musician Ferdinand Notrupp, from Nuremberg). In the same year he applied for a post as tenor in the duke-bishop's musical establishment, and was engaged as both singer and instrumentalist, with the duty of teaching the boys in the seminary. His capabilities must have been considerable as in ...


John H. Baron

(b Altona, 1624; d after 1660). German poet. He studied philosophy, theology and German (the last under August Buchner) at the University of Wittenberg from March 1650. In 1653 he moved to Hamburg, where he became the friend of Zesen, Neumark and many musicians. In 1654 he joined the Teutschgesinnte Genossenschaft, a philological society founded by Zesen; his pseudonym was ‘Der Flüchtige’, under which he published some works. From 1654 to 1656 he was active at Gottesdorf, probably either as teacher or as Protestant minister, and from 1656 to at least 1660 he worked at Glückstadt.

Under the influence of Opitz, Fleming, Rist (whom he personally disliked) and Voigtländer, Schwieger wrote some of the best German lyric poetry of the mid-17th century. His earthy tone combined with his exceptional skill gave his poetry great power and depth. Under his supervision many German composers, chief among them Albert Schop, Michael Zachaeus and Johann Kruss, set his poems to music that he then published in his collections; he was also one of the poets set by C.C. Dedekind in his ...


(b Normanville, Eure, April 10, 1716; d Paris, Aug 2, 1786). French writer. A nobleman, who served as an officer of the Gardes Françaises and as a commandeur in the Ordre de Malte, he also had a literary career. His first stage work, a comedy entitled Les effets du caractère (1752), was a failure. As an attaché to the French embassy in Vienna, he met Gluck and became his first and principal propagandist in Paris. Supported by Marie-Antoinette, he made imperious demands on the Opéra in 1774; later, he may have acted discreditably in Gluck’s interest by endeavouring to prevent improvements in the libretto of Sacchini’s Renaud. He started the fashion for adapting 17th-century tragedies for the Opéra with Iphigénie en Aulide (for Gluck) in 1774, apparently the only libretto for which he was wholly responsible. He also translated the prefaces to Gluck’s Alceste and Paride ed Elena...


Lawrence F. Bernstein

[Gessner, Konrad]

(b Zürich, March 16, 1516; d Zürich, Dec 13, 1565). Swiss humanist scholar, physician and bibliographer. He was among the most important members of the great circle of humanists who flourished in Basle and Zürich during the first half of the 16th century. Trained in classical philology and medicine, Gesner held professorial posts at the academy of Lausanne, the Collegium Carolinum in Basle and the Stiftsschule of Zürich. He was the author of pioneering works in the fields of balneology, botany, linguistics, medicine, philology and zoology. It is for his contributions as a bibliographer, however, that he is remembered by music historians.

In 1545 Gesner published the Bibliotheca universalis (facs. with introduction by H. Widmann, Osnabrück, 1966), a comprehensive bibliography of all works in Greek, Hebrew and Latin known to him. Three years later he continued this massive project with the publication of the Pandectarum sive partitionum universalium libri XIX...


M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet


French opera of the Romantic period, sung throughout, generally in five acts, grandiose in conception and impressively staged.

A grand style was frequently considered essential for works written for the Paris Opéra. Even in Lully’s day contemporaries occasionally referred to tragédies en musique as ‘grands opéras’, although librettists and composers preferred designations underlining the literary genre in lyric setting. It was not until the early 19th century, however, that the term ‘grand opéra’ became current. Castil-Blaze, for example, defined it as sung throughout (in contrast to opéra comique, which had spoken dialogue) and performed at the Opéra: in his opinion, Gluck, Piccinni and Spontini were the masters of the genre, which required nobility of subject and of tone. The librettist Jouy concurred, but also argued for an expansion to five acts and for plots drawn from heroic historical events as well as from other more conventional sources. By the 1830s ‘grand opéra’ had entered common parlance and was applied to the repertory then dominant – no longer by Gluck and his contemporaries, but by Rossini, Auber, Halévy and, above all, Meyerbeer. Modern scholars usually follow this latter, more restrictive practice, but on the scores and librettos themselves only ‘opéra’ (or occasionally ‘opéra historique’) normally appears....


Friedhelm Krummacher

(b Lüdenscheid, March 21, 1938). German musicologist and organist. After completing a diploma in church music and music pedagogy at the Musikhochschule, Saarbrücken (1963–4), he studied musicology at the universities there and at Kiel, where he took the doctorate in 1968 with a dissertation on the interpretation of myths in 19th-century music. He continued as an assistant lecturer and organist at Kiel, where he completed the Habilitation in 1978. He was professor of musicology at the Musikhochschule in Lübeck (1979–89) and was appointed professor at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater in Hanover in 1989. His Habilitationsschrift, which examines the changing relationship between social conditions and the history of composition from the Reformation until the 20th century as regards organists of northern Germany, marks a departure from the methodology of his dissertation, which followed 19th-century traditions of scholarship. His other writings include a monograph on Schumann (...


Rüdiger Schumacher

(b Flensburg, July 28, 1934). German musicologist. She completed a degree in music education at the Hamburg Hochschule für Musik in 1959 and studied musicology at Hamburg, with anthropology and early history as secondary subjects. In 1958 she married the musicologist Hans Hickmann, assisting his research and teaching until his early death in 1968. She took the doctorate in 1969 at Hamburg University with a work on the classification of musical instruments in the Middle Ages and from 1970 to 1974 worked as a producer for Deutsche Grammophon, directing the repertory office and the production department. She was appointed professor of musicology at the Hochschule für Musik in Hannover in 1976. She was chairperson of the section for organology of the Gesellschaft für Musikforschung (1981–7; from 1996) and chairperson of the study group on music archaeology for ICTM (from 1981). In addition to her work on instruments, she has contributed significantly to scholarship on music archaeology in Latin America, Egypt and early European society; she has also written on the sociology of music....


Dragotin Cvetko

(b Šentvid, Slovenia, April 11, 1898; d Ljubljana, March 23, 1932). Slovenian musicologist and ethnologist . He studied art history at Ljubljana University (PhD 1925) and from 1923 until his death was an assistant at the ethnographical museum in Ljubljana. His writings, on ethnomusicology, aesthetics and the history of music, emphasize the fact that Slovenian musical folklore is an integral part of the central European cultural past and not an isolated phenomenon. In his treatment of style and the musical systems he followed Adler and Schering and the Slovenian art historian I. Cankar.

‘Trubar in vokalna glasba’ [Trubar and vocal music], Zbori, 3 (1927), 3–5 ‘Uvod v glasbo’ [An introduction to music], Dom in svet, 41 (1928), 41–8, 85–9, 113–15, 152–4, 177–82, 213–18, 244–8, 271–4, 312–16 ‘Studija o stilu slovenske ljudske glasbe’ [A study of the style of Slovenian folk music], Dom in svet, 43 (1930), 238–41, 310–18...


Robert Falck

(fl mid- to late 13th century). Franco-Flemish trouvère. As his name indicates he was a northern poet associated with the school of Arras. He is sometimes confused with Mahieu le Juif, even though the one source that attributes songs to both clearly distinguishes between them. His partners in the jeux-partis indicate that he was probably active in the mid-13th century. (Robert de la Piere, who appears twice as Mahieu's partner, died in 1258.) His songs, without exception, are written in bar form.


Miloš Velimirović

(b Sevastopol, 10/Dec 22, 1898; d Munich, Feb 26, 1984). German musicologist of Russian origin. He was familiar with Russian church music from his childhood and specialized in studies of Russian chant, becoming an authority on the repertory, history and stylistic analysis of chant from the early 17th century. He was in Belgrade after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and completed his theological studies at the University of Belgrade in 1928, also studying composition and choral conducting with Kosta Manojlović. After a brief teaching career in Cetinje (Montenegro) and Carpathian Ruthenia he became a monk, serving in Jerusalem and elsewhere. He was in Vienna in 1939 and Potsdam in 1942, and by 1944 had returned to laity as a choral conductor in Salzburg. In 1954 he was appointed to teach courses on the liturgical chant of the Russian Orthodox Church at the University of Munich, where, in ...


Edward Dannreuther

revised by David Charlton

(b Žáky, Oct 16, 1818; d Venice, April 1, 1869). Czech pianist and composer. He appeared in public at the age of eight and went to Prague in 1833 to study the piano and composition with Tomášek. Five years later he began a series of long European tours as a virtuoso: Germany (1838); Russia (1840–42); Paris (spring 1843) and London; the Netherlands, Austria and Hungary (1846); Denmark and Sweden (1849). In 1862 he was appointed to a piano professorship at the St Petersburg Conservatory; he was appointed director of the Imperial School for theatrical music, and court pianist in 1865. Unable to endure the Russian climate, he was sent to Italy in 1868, where he died. He was buried in Prague, at his family’s wishes.

Although his repertory included many classical works, Dreyschock mainly performed his own pieces, which had no lasting success. But as a virtuoso, he possessed astonishing technical ability. J.B. Cramer, who late in his life heard him in Paris, exclaimed: ‘The man has no left hand! here are two ...


(Danish Musicological Society)

A society founded in 1954 by J.P. Larsen, Nils Schiørring, Henrik Glahn and Sven Lunn to promote musicology in Denmark, through publications and lectures, and to be a link with similar organizations abroad. It arranged congresses of Scandinavian musicologists at Copenhagen (1958), Århus (1966) and Askov (...


Margaret M. McGowan

[Bocan, Bocham, Bocquain, Bocquam, Boucan

(b Lorraine, c1580; d ?Paris, before 1655). French violinist, dancing-master and composer. He was widely known by the name Bocan and variants of it. He worked for a time in England. In 1612 he was a musician in the service of James I's queen, Anne of Denmark. He played in court masques such as Jonson's Love Freed from Ignorance (1611) and Campion's Lord's Masque (1614). He later returned to France and became dancing-master to the royal family. He accompanied Queen Henrietta Maria to London in 1625 but was obliged to return to France in 1628. In records for 1655, his wife was listed as a widow.

Although deformed and apparently untutored in music he played both the rebec and the violin; his natural gifts and buoyant playing were so extraordinary that he was always fashionable, and he received high praise from Mersenne (...


Bruce Haynes

(Fr. flûte d’accord, diapason; Ger. Stimmpfeife; It. corista a fiato)

A term used for various aerophones designed to give standard pitches to singers or to aid tuning an instrument. Originally it referred to a ‘piston flute’ (see Swanee whistle, consisting of a recorder head fitted with a movable wooden plunger or piston on which a scale of notes with a range of about one octave was marked. Bédos de Celles (1766–78, p.35) described ‘Un Tuyau de ton’ as ‘a small flute used to give the pitch to the organ and other instruments. It is made of hardwood, such as boxwood, green or black ebony, ivory …. Along the plunger, pitches are marked that correspond to a well-tuned organ at the proper pitch’.

Pitchpipes operate on the same level of accuracy as recorders, with a pitch tolerance of about 15 cents. They are important sources of information on earlier pitch standards, since they give names for each of the notes they produce, they are often stamped by the maker, and they sometimes include a date. The spacing of their scales also indicates what kinds of tuning systems were used in practical, everyday music-making. Numerous sources indicate that pitchpipes rather than tuning-forks were normally used as tuning devices for vocal and instrumental ensembles and keyboard instruments until the beginning of the 19th century. Pitchpipes were described by Mersenne (...


(fl Arras, mid- to late 13th century). French trouvère. His period of activity may be deduced from the works attributed to him: the partner for the jeux-partis was Jehan Bretel, a prominent and prolific trouvère of Arras who flourished in the mid-13th century, and who died in 1272; furthermore, Perrot identified himself at the end of the ‘Sommaires en vers de poèmes’ that introduces a collection of narrative verse (characterized by Jordan as a collection of ‘classic literary works’) contained in a source dated 1288. The ascription reads: ‘Ce fist Peros de Neele, qui en trover tos s'escrevele’ (‘Peros de Neele made this, who nearly broke down in tears while writing’). The one song by Perrot that is not a jeu-parti is a Marian song in bar form.


Hendrik van der Werf

(Fr.; Provençal joc partit, partimen)

A debate or dialogue in the form of a poem. According to Guilhem Molinier, the author of Las leys d’amors, a 13th-century treatise on how to write poetry in the style of the troubadours, there is a clear difference between a partimen and a tenso: in a partimen the first speaker presents a problem with two possible solutions, leaving his opponent the choice of which solution to defend while taking it upon himself to defend the opposite side; thus, the participants each defend a theory not out of conviction but for the sake of discussion. The theorist admitted that the two terms were often used the wrong way.

Not only did the troubadours and trouvères not use the two terms as described, they also did not distinguish between the two genres. It is thus better to examine jeux-partis as they are grouped together in those troubadour and trouvère sources that present the poems by genre. A jeu-parti is a debate or discussion, usually between two authors who contribute alternate strophes. In some poems the debate is as described in ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Arosa, canton of Graubünden, Jan 4, 1934). Swiss musicologist. He studied musicology at Basle University with Schrade and Arnold Schmitz, and German literature with Walter Muschg; at the same time he completed a course at the Basle Academy for school music (1959). In 1961 he became an assistant lecturer at Basle University Musicology Institute; he took the doctorate at Basle in 1966 with a dissertation on Schumann and became lecturer on instruments in 1968. In 1969 he was appointed to the chair of musicology at Neuchâtel University, where he has taught both historical musicology and ethnomusicology. In addition to studying European music history, particularly that of the 18th and early 19th century, Lichtenhahn has specialized in the works of Swiss composers and the history of musicology in Switzerland.

‘Über einen Ausspruch Hoffmanns und über das Romantische in der Musik’, Musik und Geschichte: Leo Schrade zum sechzigsten Geburtstag...