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John Warrack

(b Neumünster, Holstein, Oct 4, 1893; d Bielefeld, Jan 15, 1976). German musicologist and critic. After studies in Geneva and Leipzig, he took the doctorate in 1919 with Riemann (whose last assistant he became) and Schering with a dissertation on the Buxheimer Orgelbuch. From 1922 to 1925 he was music critic for newspapers in Dresden and Leipzig, becoming in 1926 music editor of the Dresdner Anzeiger; he also lectured at the Dresden Conservatory. During this period began his lifelong interest in Weber. He lost his library and musicological materials in the bombing of Dresden, and after the war lived briefly in Berlin. Renewing his contacts with Weber’s descendants, he resumed his Weber research, giving special attention to the diaries and letters. Schnoor moved in 1949 to Bielefeld, where he worked as a music critic and writer until his death.

Though he published many articles and books on general musical subjects, and made a special study of oratorio, it is his work on Weber that has been Schnoor’s most important contribution to musicology. The first major product of these studies, ...


Ferenc Bónis

(b Székesfehérvár, Feb 4, 1898; d Budapest, Oct 18, 1968). Hungarian music critic and aesthetician, husband of Annie Fischer. After learning the piano and composition in Székesfehérvár, he studied in the philosophy faculty of the Budapest Scientific University (1920–24), where he took the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on the aesthetics of Mozart’s dramatic music. While working as a music critic of the daily newspapers Új nemzedék (1920–23) and Pesti napló (1923–39) and the literary periodical Nyugat (1923–40), he was also on the editorial board of the Hungarian musicological journal Zenei szemle (1926–9) and co-editor, with Szabolcsi, of the Hungarian music dictionary Zenei lexikon (1930–31). During the 1930s his criticism and studies began to appear in such foreign periodicals as the Musical Courier, Revue musicale, Melos and Pult und Taktstock. In 1937 he married the pianist Annie Fischer and they emigrated to Sweden in ...


Robert Falck

(d Arras, 1258. French trouvère. He was a member of a prominent bourgeois family of Arras whose earliest member is documented in the year 1212. Robert himself appears twice in archival documents: as a municipal magistrate (1255) and in his obituary (spring, 1258). In the jeux-partis that bear his name he debated with Jehan Bretel, Mahieu de Gant and Lambert Ferri among others, all of whom were mid- or late 13th-century poets from the north of France.

The nine songs and five jeux-partis attributed to him appear in a small number of northern French sources and seem not to have been particularly well-known. Only Hé, Amours, je fui nouris was recorded in a wider variety of sources and inspired two French contrafacta, one of them a Marian song. This song and Joliement doi chanter are both more often attributed to Gillebert de Berneville in their manuscripts. The remaining songs employ some variety of bar form with considerable freedom in the ...


John Tyrrell

(b Ronov, Bohemia, Dec 15, 1870; d Prague, Feb 18, 1942). Czech musicologist . A Roman Catholic priest, he taught singing in a seminary in Hradec Králové and contributed to the practical reform of church music with his manual on plainchant (1899) and his numerous articles in Cyril, of which he later became editor (1909–19). While in Prague (1907–19) he became a lecturer in liturgical music at the conservatory and at the same time completed his own musical studies under Novák, Hostinský and Bezecný (palaeography) and later with Adler in Vienna, where he obtained the doctorate in 1914 with a dissertation on the Speciálník codex of Hradec Králové: publication of an edition (in DTÖ) was prevented by World War I.

In 1919 Orel was appointed to the proposed theological faculty of Bratislava University but when it failed to come into existence he took the chair of musicology instead (...


Andrew Lamb

(It.: diminutive of ‘opera’; Fr. opérette; Ger. Operette; Sp. opereta)

A light opera with spoken dialogue, songs and dances. Emphasizing music rich in melody and based on 19th-century operatic styles, the form flourished during the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th. During the 20th century it evolved into and was largely superseded by the Musical comedy . The term ‘operetta’ was originally applied in a more general way to describe works that were short, or otherwise less ambitious, derivatives of opera.

As a specific artistic form, what we now regard as operetta evolved in Paris in the 1850s as an antidote to the increasingly serious and ambitious pretensions of the opéra comique and vaudeville. It was to fill this gap that various attempts were made to establish a home for short, lighthearted operatic-style works. The particular success of Jacques Offenbach and his company at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens, offering programmes of two or three satirical one-act sketches, was such that it led to the extension of the format into works of a whole evening’s duration and to the establishment of ...


Ferruccio Tammaro

(b Cremona, June 24, 1870; d Sale Marasino, Brescia, Oct 21, 1934). Italian musicologist, critic and double bass player. Besides the double bass, he studied the violin, cello and flute at the Milan Conservatory (1888–91); while visiting Hamburg on tour with the Bimboni orchestra in 1894 he attended the lectures of Julius Bernuth and Arnold Krug at the conservatory there. After taking up his education again in 1903, he took the doctorate in 1908 at Munich University under Sandberger, Kroyer and Lipps, concurrently taking an MA in music under Felix Mottl at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst. From 1910 he contributed to the newspaper Il secolo, the Rivista musicale italiana and the Revue de pays latins, subsequently working as music critic of the Corriere della sera (1920–34) and correspondent of the Revue de musicologie (1929–34). He was also librarian of the Milan Conservatory (...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Rats-Damnitz, Pomerania, Feb 18, 1886; d Scheinfeld, nr Nuremberg, July 8, 1976). German musicologist. After studying in Dresden under Liszt’s pupil Bertrand Roth (1900–06) he attended courses in musicology for one term at Munich University with Sandberger and for one term at Berlin University with Wolf (to whom he owed the subject of his dissertation); he completed his degree with Riemann at Leipzig University, where he took the doctorate in 1911 with a study of the Quaestiones in musica. Between 1919 and 1929 he was music correspondent for the Hannoverscher Anzeiger and from 1925 he taught at the Hanover Conservatory. In 1930 he completed the Habilitation in musicology at Erlangen University with a dissertation on musical rhythm. He then taught there as head of the musicology department and was appointed supernumerary professor in 1934. From 1935 to 1944 he was also a lecturer at the Nuremberg Conservatory and at the Nuremberg Wirtschaftshochschule. He was editor of the ...


Pamela M. Potter

(b Vienna, Jan 29, 1874; d Salzburg, Sept 11, 1958). Austrian musicologist and composer. He read law at the University of Vienna but worked in Austrian provincial administration from 1894 to 1904 before completing his degree. At the same time he studied composition with Robert Fuchs at the Conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna (1893–9) and musicology with Wallaschek, Rietsch and Adler (1896–9).

He obtained the doctorate in 1902 from the German University in Prague with a dissertation on the development of ornamented melody. He lived for the next few years in the south in Istria, Dalmatia and Italy owing to ill health and was pensioned from government service in 1904, at which point he dedicated himself to musicological writings and opera composition. He returned to Vienna and in 1911 began working in the Hofbibliothek, succeeding Ferdinand Scherber as director of the music collection (...


John A. Emerson

(Josef )

(b Kürenz, nr Trier, Aug 19, 1865; d Fribourg, Oct 17, 1931). German musicologist and medievalist . He studied under Michael Hermesdorff at the Cathedral music school in Trier (1876–86), and at the University of Strasbourg he studied classics and then musicology (under Jacobsthal), taking the doctorate in 1890 with a dissertation on Palestrina as a secular composer. He continued his studies in Berlin with Bellermann and Spitta. In 1893 he was appointed lecturer in music history and church music at the University of Fribourg, where he remained for 38 years, becoming professor (1902) and rector (1920–21). Under the patronage of Pope Leo XIII Wagner founded the Académie Grégorienne at the university in 1901; under its auspices a series of more than 20 monographs on medieval chant was published. In 1904 Wagner was appointed to the Pontifical Commission for the preparation of the Editio Vaticana chant books. During the ensuing controversy surrounding their publication, Wagner staunchly defended the principles of restoration used by the board of editors. He was a member of many scholarly societies, and in ...


Anna Amalie Abert

revised by Benjamin Korstvedt


(b Prague, Czech Republic, Aug 15, 1886; d Vienna, Austria, Oct 4, 1960). Austrian musicologist of Czech birth. After his schooling in Prague he studied at the universities of Berlin, Vienna, and Prague, where he took the doctorate under Rietsch in 1908 with a dissertation on the Viennese Singspiel. He then went to Vienna as assistant to Guido Adler. From 1910 he worked for a few years as an opera conductor and répétiteur in Münster, Erfurt, Konstanz, and Dresden, but returned to Vienna in 1914 as secretary to the Corpus scriptorum de musica medii aevii and the Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich. After military service in World War I he worked in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, and in 1920 was appointed head of the music collection, a position he held until 1945, when his membership in the Nazi party, which he joined in 1933 when the party was still illegal in Austria (Potter ...


John Clapham, Oldřich Pukl, L. Tyllner, Karel Vetterl, Marta Toncrová and Oskár Elschek

revised by Jan Smaczny

Country in central Europe. It was established in 1992 after the break-up of Czechoslovakia into two separate republics. Czechoslovakia had been created in 1918 out of the former Habsburg territories of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. This reflects the composition of the 9th-century kingdom of Great Moravia. Slovakia fell to the Magyars in 906 (and remained part of Hungary and later the Habsburg Empire until 1918); Bohemia, with a strong line of Přemyslid princes and kings, became dominant and in 1029 formally incorported Moravia as a margravate. The teachings of Jan Hus gave the kingdom a largely Protestant character, eroded neither by five assaults by imperial and crusader armies (1419–31) nor by the election of a Habsburg as king in 1526. After the Battle of the White Mountain (1620), in which the Czech nobility were defeated by the Habsburgs, Bohemia and Moravia became virtual provinces of the Habsburg Empire and were forced to adopt its language and religion. Reaction to this culminated in the 19th-century national revival, which in turn led to independence and union with Slovakia in ...


This article surveys the liturgical and ‘paraliturgical’ music of the Roman Catholic Church from the time of the Council of Trent (1545–63), summoned by Pope Paul III to counteract the changes taking place in the Church in the wake of the Reformation.

The liturgical diversification that had occurred in Europe during the first half of the 16th century was to have a profound effect both on the role of music in worship and on its style. Some Reformers rejected all music except unison congregational song, while others saw the value of continuing older practices and adapting contemporary musical styles to a new repertory in the vernacular. The Council, in response, reasserted the use of Latin and Latin plainchant in the Catholic liturgy, prohibited singing in the vernacular, approved the use of polyphony and rejected secular musical influences. From this point in the history of music, therefore, it is possible to begin to speak of a distinctly ‘Roman Catholic’ musical tradition....



Norbert Böker-Heil, David Fallows, John H. Baron, James Parsons, Eric Sams, Graham Johnson and Paul Griffiths

(Ger.: ‘song’)

A song in the German vernacular.

Norbert Böker-Heil, revised by David Fallows

The term ‘polyphonic lied’ is generally used in German to describe a polyphonic composition for any combination of forces, with or without the human voice, which is either songlike in character or derives its particular identity from the technical elaboration of a pre-existing lied melody, for instance as a cantus firmus. In the terminology of music history this wide definition in fact applies only to the heyday of the polyphonic lied in the 15th and 16th centuries. The earliest polyphonic songs with German text date from around 1400. From the mid-15th century a growing repertory made greater use of folk-like melodies and texts than did the dominating French song repertory of the time; this in its turn led to the major flourishing of an indigenous and distinctive tradition in the first half of the century, supported by the flourishing German music printers of those years. After about ...


Margaret Bent

(from Gk. isos: ‘equal’ and rhythmos: ‘rhythm’)

A modern term applied with varying degrees of strictness to the periodic repetition or recurrence of rhythmic configurations, often with changing melodic content, in tenors and other parts of 14th- and early 15th-century compositions, especially motets. Since its introduction, however, the term has been more widely applied than is warranted, often with conflicting meanings. It belongs to a family of descriptive terms including ‘isomel(od)ic’ (see Isomelism), ‘isochronous’, ‘isosyllabic’ and ‘isometric’; for ‘isoperiodic’ and ‘panisorhythm’ (where all voice-parts of a composition participate in rhythmic repeats) see below.

No equivalent term was used or needed in medieval theory, which instead used the words ‘color’ and ‘talea’; these now designate tenor melodic and rhythmic units respectively, and are more supple analytical instruments than any single concept of ‘isorhythm’, although then they were less clearly distinguished (see Color and Talea). Johannes de Muris (Libellus cantus mensurabilis, ed. in CoussemakerS...


Alec Hyatt King

(b Munich, Dec 30, 1880; d El Cerrito, CA, Feb 13, 1952). American musicologist of German origin. He was a cousin of the scientist Albert Einstein. He began by studying law, but abandoned it after only a year and became a pupil of Adolf Sandberger in musicology and of Anton Beer-Wallbrunn in composition. In 1903 he obtained the doctorate at Munich University with a dissertation on German works for the viola da gamba in the 16th and 17th centuries. During the next decade he brought his name to a wider public with a series of articles in scholarly journals. His appointment in 1918 as the first editor of the Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft gave him a position of great influence, which he held until 1933. He was also music critic on the Münchner Post until 1927 and on the Berliner Tageblatt from 1927 to 1933. In the latter year he left Germany because of the Nazi regime. He stayed in London for some time and then lived mainly in Mezzomonte, near Florence. Towards the end of his stay in Europe he was offered a post at Cambridge but refused it. In ...


M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Vienna, July 3, 1889; d Vienna, April 11, 1967). Austrian musicologist . After receiving a degree in law at the University of Vienna in 1912 he worked in the Austrian Finance Ministry until 1918. He began studying musicology with Adler in Vienna in 1917 and earned the doctorate in 1919 with a dissertation on the Salve regina settings in the Trent manuscripts. From 1918 and 1938 he oversaw the music collection in the Vienna Stadtbibliothek and simultaneously continued to work at the University of Vienna until 1945, completing the Habilitation in 1922 with a work on rhythm in 15th-century polyphony; he was named reader in 1929 and supernumerary professor in 1939. Orel was also interim director of the Staatliche Akademie für Musik und Darstellende Kunst in 1938, and from 1940 to 1945 he was special consultant on Viennese music research for the Vienna office of cultural affairs. After the war he was barred from the university because of his membership in the Nazi party. Orel organized numerous exhibits on music in the 1920s and 30s and received medals of honour from the state in ...



Sandra Mangsen, John Irving, John Rink and Paul Griffiths

(from It. suonare: ‘to sound’)

A term used to denote a piece of music usually but not necessarily consisting of several movements, almost invariably instrumental and designed to be performed by a soloist or a small ensemble. The solo and duet sonatas of the Classical and Romantic periods with which it is now most frequently associated generally incorporate a movement or movements in what has misleadingly come to be called Sonata form (or ‘first-movement form’), but in its actual usage over more than five centuries the title ‘sonata’ has been applied with much broader formal and stylistic connotations than that.

From the 13th century onwards the word ‘sonnade’ was used in literary sources simply to denote an instrumental piece, as for example in the Provençal 13th-century Vida da Santa Douce: ‘Mens que sonavan la rediera sonada de matinas’. In a mystery play of 1486 the phrase ‘Orpheus fera ses sonnades’ occurs as a stage direction. Cognate usages appear to be the ‘sennets’ called for in Elizabethan plays and the term ‘sonada’ found in German manuscripts of the same period for trumpet calls and fanfares, a later manifestation of which were the more extended ...


Jan Larue, Eugene K. Wolf, Mark Evan Bonds, Stephen Walsh and Charles Wilson

(Fr. simphonie, symphonie; Ger. Sinfonie, Symphonie; It. sinfonia)

A term now normally taken to signify an extended work for orchestra. The symphony became the chief vehicle of orchestral music in the late 18th century, and from the time of Beethoven came to be regarded as its highest and most exalted form. The adjective ‘symphonic’ applied to a work implies that it is extended and thoroughly developed.

The word ‘symphony’ derives from the Greek syn (‘together’) and phōnē (‘sounding’), through the Latin Symphonia, a term used during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. It is essentially in this derivation that the term was used by Giovanni Gabrieli (Sacrae symphoniae, 1597), Heinrich Schütz (Symphoniae sacrae, 1629) and others for concerted motets, usually for voices and instruments. In the 17th century the term ‘symphony’ or (more commonly) ‘sinfonia’ was applied to introductory movements to operas, oratorios and cantatas (see Overture), to the instrumental introductions and ritornellos of arias and ensembles (...


Patricia Howard

( b Paris, May 24, 1886; d Nanterre, April 11, 1942). French musicologist . He was a pupil of Rolland at the Sorbonne from 1906, taking the doctorat ès lettres there in 1913 with dissertations on Italian opera in France before Lully and the ballet de cour in France before Benserade and Lully; later he also took the diploma of advanced librarianship (1935). After compiling a catalogue of the music in the Biblioteca Laurenziana, Florence (1908), he taught at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales (1909–14). In 1920 he founded and directed (until 1939) the Revue musicale and from 1921 its series of concerts, largely of contemporary music, given in the Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier; at these, he ardently promoted the music of Bartók, Malipiero, Pizzetti and Casella. Concurrently he worked as Paris music correspondent of the New York Times (1924–35) and general secretary and chairman of the French section of the International Music Society, of which he was a co-founder....


James Webster

The most important principle of musical form, or formal type, from the Classical period well into the 20th century. This form is that of a single movement, not a ‘sonata’ as a whole; such a movement is most often part of a multi-movement instrumental cycle such as a sonata, piano trio or quartet, string quartet or quintet, symphony etc., or an independent movement like an overture or tone poem. Sonata form as such is less common in fantasies and the like, small movements, concertos and vocal music, but its principles may influence other features of form in such works. Though most characteristic of first movements in fast tempo, it often appears in middle movements and finales, and in moderate and slow tempo; hence the synonyms ‘sonata-allegro form’ and ‘first-movement form’ are best avoided.

A typical sonata-form movement consists of three main sections, embedded in a two-part tonal structure. The first part of the structure coincides with the first section and is called the ‘exposition’. The second part of the structure comprises the remaining two sections, the ‘development’ and the ‘recapitulation’. The exposition divides into a ‘first group’ in the tonic and a ‘second group’ in another key, most often the dominant. Both first and second group may include numerous different ideas; the first or most prominent theme may be called the ‘main theme’, ‘first subject’, ‘primary material’ etc., while the most prominent theme in the second group is often called the ‘second theme’ (or ‘subject’), whether or not it actually is the second important musical idea. The development (the misleading term ‘free fantasia’ is now obsolete) usually develops material from the exposition, as it modulates among one or more new keys. The last part of the development prepares the recapitulation. The recapitulation (or ‘reprise’; but see §3 (iii)) begins with a simultaneous ‘double return’, to the main theme and to the tonic. It then restates most or all of the significant material from the exposition, whereby the second group is transposed to the tonic. The movement concludes either with a cadence in the tonic paralleling the end of the exposition, or with a coda following the recapitulation....