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Article

Pamela M. Potter

(b Ossa bei Narsdorf, nr Leipzig, Dec 6, 1897; d Berlin, Sept 30, 1967). German musicologist. He studied musicology, psychology and folklore at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig (1917–22), where his teachers included Abert, Riemann and Schering. He earned the doctorate in 1922 at the University of Leipzig with a dissertation on the Berlin lieder and passed the state examination at Dresden as teacher of music theory and organ playing. In 1924 he completed his Habilitation at the Technische Hochschule in Danzig with a work on music aesthetics in the 18th century, and was named reader there in 1930. In 1936 he was appointed supernumerary professor at the University of Berlin and from 1939 worked for the Staatliches Institut für Deutsche Musikforschung.

Frotscher was active in the Hitler Youth, heading a department on the ceremonial uses of the organ from 1938, and edited and contributed regularly to its music journal, ...

Article

Guy Bourligueux

(b Villa de Veteta, province of Cuenca, Nov 6, 1613; d Granada, 1673). Spanish composer. He was choirmaster of the cathedrals at Guadix, Toledo (1644) and Granada (1645). He also competed for the post of choirmaster of Málaga Cathedral in 1642 but was beaten by Pérez Roldán. When, however, it was offered to him in ...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Salamanca, Feb 17, 1755; d Salamanca, Dec 18, 1842). Spanish composer. He was a choirboy in his native town, where he was taught music by Juan Martín, choirmaster at the cathedral. When Martín retired in 1781, Doyagüe provisionally took on his post and won it by competition after Martín’s death in 1789. Previously he had been appointed professor of music at Salamanca University. He held both posts with brilliance until his death.

All Doyagüe’s compositions are sacred – masses, motets, psalms and villancicos. Some of them, particularly some of the Miserere settings and Lamentations, have a notably dramatic character. The autograph score of one of his Magnificat settings, because it was considered his finest work, was buried with him. He was one of the best-known Spanish composers of his time, and although modest and retiring, he received honours that few can equal: for example, he was invited on various occasions to provide music for particular solemn ceremonies at the royal palace and to conduct them; he was often called upon by cathedrals to adjudicate competitions for the post of choirmaster; he was made honorary director of the Madrid Conservatory; Rossini himself once wrote to him of having been profoundly moved by one of his ...

Article

Robert Falck

revised by John Haines

(b Uzerche, nr Limoges, c1150; d c1220). Troubadour. He was from the Limousin region of southern France. His vida tells that he received the protection of Boniface, Marquis of Montferrat. Boniface succeeded his father as marquis in 1192, was chosen as leader of the fourth crusade in 1202 and died in battle in 1207. Gaucelm dedicated a number of poems to Boniface and so was probably in his service before 1200. It would appear that Gaucelm came under the patronage of the marquis only after a period of 20 years wandering on foot without recognition; it has been suggested that the composer’s travels took him as far as Italy and Spain.

The vida further records that Gaucelm was a middle-class son who became a joglar only because he lost all his property at dice. (The existence of a notice to the effect that he sold a field to the Abbey of Obazine as late as ...

Article

(Sp.: ‘elegant’, ‘dashing’)

The Spanish equivalent of Galliard, a lively triple-metre dance popular in 16th- and 17th-century Europe. A galliard choreography under the Spanish name appeared in Antonius de Arena's treatise Ad suos compagnones studiantes … bassas dansas (?1519), and the characteristic rhythms of the dance formed the basis of several sets of diferencias or variations by Cabezón in the mid-16th century. Apparently the Spanish term also referred to a duple-metre dance, for a number of variations on duple gallardas were composed by Juan Cabanilles (ex.1); each retains the bass line of an eight- or ten-bar dance strain as an ostinato unifying the set. A 17th-century choreography for the gallarda describes a highly ornamented version of the 16th-century dance with shakes of the feet preceding some steps and vigorous leaping and twisting of the body, but it seems unrelated to the duple-metre form of the dance used by Cabanilles....

Article

J.B. Trend

revised by Israel J. Katz

(Sp.: ‘deep song’)

A generic term encompassing the purest and oldest strata of songs of the flamenco tradition, which originated in the provinces of Andalusia in southern Spain. While cante hondo (or, in its aspirated, Andalusian form, jondo) refers, more appropriately, to a particular vocal timbre, the term has been used erroneously to designate a form. Hondo connotes a deep or profound feeling with which the singer expresses his or her innermost thoughts, emphasizing the tragic side of life.

Cante hondo includes the following song types: cañas, carceleras, deblas, livianas, martinetes, polos, saetas, serranas, siguiriyas, soleares and tonás. Although they vary in style and structure, they constitute an important sub-category of flamenco known as cante grande and are further distinguished by their textual stanzas, melodic strophes, microtonalism, tempo, metre, phrase lengths, ornamentation, restricted tessitura and characteristic vocal timbre. Several cante (i.e. the caña, polo and soleá) enjoyed an independent evolution while others derived from the basic ...

Article

Tomás Marco

revised by Angel Medina

(b Madrid, March 16, 1928). Spanish composer and critic. He studied in Madrid at the conservatory and at the university, where he received the doctorate (1956). Although he followed courses under Messiaen and Ligeti, he is fundamentally a self-taught composer. He was a founder member of the Grupo Nueva Música (1958) and of ‘Zaj’ (1964–6), a musical theatre group. In 1967 he launched the Sonda magazine and the associated series of new music concerts. He was also music critic of the Madrid newspaper Ya (1971–8) and deputy director of Ritmo (1982–93). He has translated into Spanish numerous books, including works by Reger, Schoenberg, Schenker and Piston. He has been awarded various distinctions, such as the National Prize for Music (1973), the City of Madrid Prize for Musical Creation (1992) and the Gold Medal of Merit in Fine Arts (...

Article

Barton Hudson

(b Tudela, Navarre, bap. Nov 30, 1634; d Zaragoza, April 21, 1696). Spanish composer and organist. His entire professional life was associated with the Cathedral of La Seo at Zaragoza. On 20 June 1654 he became assistant to the first organist, José Ximénez, his uncle and probable teacher. He became a priest on 7 April 1656 but continued as assistant until he was elevated to second organist on 16 February 1664. On 12 January 1672 he succeeded Ximénez as principal organist and held that position until his death. In May 1681 he was offered the organist's position at Oviedo Cathedral but chose to remain at La Seo. From 24 April 1687 to June 1692 he was interim maestro de capilla.

Sola's small quantity of extant music, all for organ, shows a high standard of craftsmanship: it comprises a set of 28 versos and three tientos, one of which is based on a ...

Article

Saeta  

Israel J. Katz

(Sp.: ‘arrow’, ‘spontaneous outburst’; Lat. sagitta: ‘arrow’, ‘dart’)

A devotional song genre, considered to be the religious song par excellence of Andalusia, as well as a venerable constituent of Cante hondo (deep song). The saeta has long been associated with Holy Week, particularly in Seville, where it achieved widespread fame, and where it continues to be sung along the extended route of the all-night street processions in an atmosphere of fervour and vitality, intermixed with deep reverence and joy. The pasos (statue-bearing floats), toward which the saetas are directed and which are carried by the various cofradías (brotherhoods), constitute an important element of the processions. Saetas can also be heard during the processions of Corpus Christi, and are quite popular in all the regions of Spain. In as much as the pasos depict scenes from the Passion, the saetas, whose coplas (stanzas) range from four to six octosyllabic hemistichs (perhaps derived from the ancient romances), deal with themes from the Passion, the death of Christ and the sorrows of the Virgin....

Article

Seises  

Robert Stevenson

(Sp. ‘sixes’)

From the 16th century to the 19th, the choirboys who sang polyphony in the cathedrals of Seville, Toledo, Avila, Segovia, Mexico City, Lima and elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world were called seises – six being their traditional number at Seville and Toledo cathedrals. The earliest papal bulls designating the income from a prebend for a master of the choirboys in Seville Cathedral were Eugene IV’s Ad exequendum (24 September 1439) and Nicolas V’s Votis illis (27 June 1454). Throughout the next three centuries Seville Cathedral (which set the pattern for the Spanish Indies) had both a master of the altar boys who sang only plainchant, and a master of the seises, generally the maestro de capilla or his deputy. The master of the seises boarded and taught them. When their voices changed, and upon receiving a certificate of good behaviour, they were entitled to a few years’ free tuition and other benefits in the Colegio de S Miguel or in the Colegio de S Isidoro maintained by the Sevillian Chapter. Similar ...

Article

Luis Robledo

(b ?León, c1550; d Madrid, May 16, 1618). Spanish composer and instrumentalist. Like his father and two brothers he was an instrumentalist of the Spanish royal household, but he is the only one who seems also to have been a composer. In May 1602 he joined a group of violón players in the service of Philip III when the court was established in Valladolid, and on 30 October 1604 he was named as a ministril (wind-player) to perform in the royal chapel ‘and other places’. In 1616 he was mentioned, together with the ‘master of the Italian violón players’ Stefano Limido, as customarily playing in the royal chapel. The principal function of the violones, however, was to accompany the dances and secular festivities of the court. As ministril Gómez de la Cruz was named as one of those who played treble parts, and there is evidence that he played the treble ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Zamora, May 14, 1947). Spanish ethnomusicologist. In 1951 his family settled in Valladolid, where he completed his schooling and entered the university to study philosophy and law. Yielding to his desire to collect, study and perform the traditional music of Spain, especially that of Castile and León, he abandoned his university studies. Possessing a fine voice and a talent for playing instruments, he began what was to develop into a remarkable career in performance, recording and television, including recitals and conferences at universities and cultural institutions throughout Spain, Portugal, Europe and the USA. In 1980 he created the Centro Castellano de Estudios Folklóricos (Valladolid) and established the monthly journal Revista de folklore. In 1982 he became a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de la Purísima Concepción (Valladolid); he was vice-president of the Sociedad Ibérica de Etnomusicología (1993–4) and in 1993 became Catedrático honorario at the University of Valladolid. In ...

Article

(b Vega de Espinareda, province of León, Feb 28, 1943). Spanish musicologist. He studied with the Padres Paúles at Villafranca del Bierzo, and later at other houses of the Paúles order at Limpias (Cantabria), Madrid and Salamanca. In Salamanca he also studied harmony with Aníbal Sánchez Fraile. In 1971 he became a licentiate in history at Oviedo University and in 1976 gained the doctorate. He studied at the University of Glasgow in 1971 and from 1972 to 1988 taught at Oviedo University, meanwhile completing advanced musical studies at the Madrid Conservatory. Instrumental in initiating musicology as a Spanish university discipline, he became musicology professor at Oviedo in 1982 and at the Universidad Complutense, Madrid, in 1988.

The breadth and diversity of his musical knowledge are reflected in his publications; he is editor of the Barbieri papers in the Madrid National Library and author of a constant flow of research publications planned to culminate in the forthcoming ...

Article

Robert Stevenson

(b Maella, province of Zaragoza, c1544; d Valladolid, May 11, 1601). Spanish organist and composer. He was a brother of the organist Bernardo Clavijo del Castillo. Diego was elected organist at Sigüenza Cathedral on 23 August 1566; he competed for the organ prebend at Toledo Cathedral on 26 November 1579, narrowly won (14 votes to 11) by Jerónimo de Peraza (i). Castillo was appointed Peraza’s successor as organist at Seville Cathedral on 28 April 1581. On 3 November 1583 the Seville Cathedral chapter commissioned Castillo to describe the stops of the new grand organ built there between 1567 and 1579 (essentially complete in 1573) by the Flemish ‘Mestre Jox’. Shortly before 14 December 1583 Castillo was appointed organist of the chapel of King Philip II. Fiscal records of the House of Castile mention him and Hernando de Cabezón as músicos de tecla (keyboardists); they signed receipts jointly from ...

Article

Jacinthe Harbec and Nicole Paiement

(b Paris, Nov 5, 1885; d Paris, Nov 23, 1951). French writer on music and composer. He studied piano at the Bordeaux Conservatoire and literature at the University, before taking composition lessons in Toulouse with Séverac, and in Spain with Pedrell, Olmeda and Falla, who became a close friend. During his long Spanish sojourns, which began in 1902, he collected many polyphonic chants and folk melodies from Castilian monastery archives. This research found its way into his numerous musicological books and articles, which included Le mysticisme musical espagnol au XVIe siècle, L’essor de la musique espagnole au XXe siècle and Albéniz et Granados. After completing his literature degree, he became professor at the Casa de Velasquez in Madrid and established close ties with Granados, Turina and Rodrigo.

On his return to Paris in 1913, he became a spokesman for Spanish music in France and an important voice for young French composers. His articles in ...

Article

José López-Calo

[Hernán] [Columbus, Ferdinand]

(b Córdoba, 1488; d Seville, Sept 12, 1539). Spanish bibliophile and music collector. The illegitimate son of Christopher Columbus, he received a thorough education at the court of the Catholic Monarchs. From his earliest years he had a great passion for travel and accompanied his father on a journey to America. Later he made several extensive journeys through Europe, at first with Charles V and later on his own account. He took advantage of his journeys to acquire the best books he could find on many subjects, including music. He kept an exact account of all his acquisitions, with details of the most important ones; in each volume he noted the place and date of purchase and the price. He also compiled careful lists of his library. By the end of his life he had an extremely important library of more than 15,000 items, including numerous manuscripts; on his death he left the whole collection to Seville Cathedral. Regrettably, nearly three-quarters of the books have been lost; only some 4000 volumes remain. Among them, nevertheless, there are some very valuable items, ranging from medieval manuscripts to unique prints of Petrucci and theoretical works. His catalogues also largely survive and provide details of early printed music which has since been lost. In ...

Article

Robert Stevenson

(b Morelia, Michoacán, Feb 16, 1910; d León, Guanajuato, July 26, 1956). Mexican composer. A choirboy at Morelia Cathedral, he studied at the Colegio de Infantes there with Aguilera Ruiz and Mier y Arriaga. In 1928, after completing a course at the Escuela Superior de Música Sagrada, he was sent by Villaseñor to Rome for further study at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra with Casimiri (musicology and composition), Refice and others. Graduating in 1933 in the organ, composition and Gregorian chant, he returned to teach in his home town. There he was appointed director of the Escuela Superior de Música Sagrada (1936), and in 1939 he founded under its auspices the monthly Schola cantorum, which he edited until 1953 while touring widely in Mexico and the USA as a concert organist, choral conductor and lecturer. In 1943 the Mexican Academia de Ciencas y Artes Cinematográficas awarded him its annual prize in recognition of ...

Article

(b Niederhaslach, Alsace, c1450; d Rome, May 16, 1506). Alsatian Cleric and liturgist. Born in a town near Strasbourg, Burkhard began his ecclesiastical career in that city. By 1467 he was in Rome, where he rose through the ranks of the papal curia. An assiduous collector of benefices and curial offices, he passed through the households of various cardinals to become a member of the papal household and, as of 29 November 1483, one of the masters of ceremonies in the papal chapel. While still holding this position, he was appointed Bishop of Orte in 1503. As a master of ceremonies, Burkhard collaborated in producing the definitive papal Caeremoniale and kept a diary (a major source for the history of the period) recording in detail ceremonies and other occurrences at the papal court. Although the presence of the papal choir is often noted, Burkhard did not describe the specifics of musical performance except when referring to innovations, mishaps and occasions when something happened that he did not like. Thus we learn about various mistakes made by celebrants and papal singers, about the new use of polyphony in the singing of the Passion (apparently introduced from Spain), and about the motet ...

Article

Carlos Gómez Amat

(b Seville, Dec 9, 1882; d Madrid, Jan 14, 1949). Spanish composer.

He was the son of a painter of Italian descent. Music played a large part in his life from his early childhood, and although in deference to his family's wishes he began to study medicine, he soon abandoned everything that interfered with music, for which he showed a strong aptitude. His serious study began with piano lessons from Enrique Rodríguez and composition lessons from Evaristo García Torres, choirmaster of Seville Cathedral.

He soon became well known in Seville as a composer and, from 1897, as a pianist. His early successes prompted him to go to Madrid with the intention of arranging to have his opera La sulamita, which treats a biblical subject in a very traditional style, performed at the Teatro Real. This was an impossible ambition for an unknown provincial composer; but Turina gradually became well known in artistic circles and his friendship with Falla influenced his ideas on the proper character of Spanish music. In ...

Article

Almonte Howell

revised by Alma Espinosa

(b Calanda, nr Zaragoza, May 24, 1736; d Madrid, March 17, 1801). Spanish organist and composer. A letter to Latassa which outlines his career reveals that owing to failing eye-sight he abandoned a career in letters to become an organist, completing his studies in Zaragoza. He came to Madrid around 1760 as maestro de capilla and organist at S Felipe Neri. In late 1768 he won the post of organist at the royal chapel and entered service in January 1769. He moved to third organist in 1774 and second in 1787, in which position he remained for the rest of his life. His reputation as a musician is attested by Bails, who consulted him in preparing his own Lecciones de clave (1775). From 1773 to the 1790s many of his publications were announced in Madrid periodicals by the printing firm Librería de Copin, including fugues, versets, minuets, sonatas and other pieces for organ, harpsichord or piano, as well as quartets and violin sonatas. All these prints appear to have been lost except his undated op.1, ...