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Tim Carter

(It.: ‘tale [presented] in music’)

A term used to describe early 17th-century operas and (as ‘favola per musica’, i.e. ‘for music’) librettos. The Latin ‘fabula’ appears in titles of pastoral-mythological entertainments in the 15th century sometimes known as ‘hybrid dramas’ (‘drammi mescidati’), for example Poliziano’s La fabula d’Orpheo (1480). The classicizing label doubtless lent respectability to a genre lacking the solid precedents of classical tragedy and comedy. In the 16th century the Italian equivalent, alone or with a qualifier (‘pastorale’, ‘boschereccia’, ‘marittima’ etc.), is used for plays in the pastoral tradition, again filling a generic vacuum (but Guarini opted for the more loaded ‘tragicommedia’). Marco da Gagliano, in the preface to his Dafne (1608), described the first opera librettos as ‘favole’, placing them squarely in the context of the pastoral, although Alessandro Striggio was the first librettist to use the title in print with La favola d’Orfeo (1607). Monteverdi followed suit, coining ‘favola in musica’ for the title-page of the score of ...


John Whenham

(b Prato, nr Florence; d after Nov 16, 1641). Italian composer. In 1641 he was choirmaster to the Grand Duke of Tuscany at Livorno Cathedral. His sole surviving publication, Musical concerto d'arie, e canzonette à una, dua, e tre voci per cantare nel gravicembalo, ò chitarrone op.4 (Florence, 1641), consists mainly of strophic canzonettas and ariettas, though it also contains a sonnet setting in four sections, Ardo, ma l'ardor mio, for bass solo, and a ciaccona for two altos, O piaggia felice, which employs a descending tetrachord ostinato rather than the usual chaconne bass. The sensual bel canto ariettas for solo voice, some of them employing melodic and harmonic chromaticism, reveal Spighi as a melodist of some merit.

J. Whenham: Duet and Dialogue in the Age of Monteverdi (Ann Arbor, 1982), 1, 175, 248; ii, 148S. Leopold: Al modo d'Orfeo: Dichtung und Musik im italienischen Sologesang des frühen 17. Jahrhunderts...


(b Genoa; fl 1628). Italian composer. He is known only by his Arie ad una et a più voci with continuo (Naples, 1628). In a verbose dedication and preface he said that he was still a young man and that he and his family had enjoyed the favour of the father of the dedicatee, G.B. Serra, Prince of Carovigno (which is near Brindisi). The book contains 25 pieces (which he said had been circulating for some time and been performed to great applause), including 15 trios, ...


Suzanne G. Cusick

revised by Maureen Buja

(b Ghedi, nr Brescia, c1500; d Rome, 1565). Italian printer. His entire professional career was spent in Rome. From March 1526 to April 1527 he collaborated with the printer Giovanni Giacomo Pasoti of Parma on six of the eight music books Pasoti printed for the Roman publisher Jacomo Giunta. By 1531 Dorico was established as an independent printer and bookseller, producing at least five collections of music and one musical treatise during the next six years. In all the music books with which his name is associated from the 1520s and 1530s, Dorico used the double-impression method of printing; after Pasoti’s disappearance from Rome during the sack of 1527, Dorico retained possession of his types and decorative materials, using them in his own editions in the 1530s. After a musical hiatus of seven years, he adopted the single-impression method, devised by Attaingnant, for his edition of Morales’s masses in ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Altishofen, Dec 1, 1934). Swiss musicologist. He studied musicology first at the University of Fribourg with Brenn, and then with Schrade and Schmitz at the University of Basle, where he took the doctorate in 1967 with a dissertation on medieval polyphonic mass settings. Concurrently he made extensive research trips to nearly every European country. He also worked as an assistant under Schrade (1959–61) and subsequently became Kurt von Fischer’s research assistant (1967) and a lecturer at the musicology department of Zürich University (1968). He completed the Habilitation in 1975 with a study of the polyphonic Italian Passion, and was appointed reader in 1977. He was a member of the directorate of the Schweizerische Musikforschende Gesellschaft (from 1971) and the IMS (1977–87) and he is general editor of the Schoeck collected edition.

Lütolf’s main areas of research have been the history of music in the Middle Ages, Italian music after ...


Paolo Emilio Carapezza

revised by Giuseppe Collisani

[De Michaele, Antoninus]

(b Tusa, Sicily; d Tusa, 1680). Italian guitarist and music editor. He was a priest. His only known publication is La nuova chitarra, di regole, dichiarationi e figure, con la regola della scala … con l’aggiunta d’arie siciliane, e sonate di vari autori (Palermo, 1680, 2/1698), a collection of dances and Sicilian songs for five-string guitar in Italian tablature. The music is preceded by rules for tuning the guitar and for obtaining five-note chords; each of 24 triads is indicated by a letter of the alphabet. The texts of the Sicilian songs are given below the letters of the tablature; appropriate numbers indicate the string in each chord that plays in unison with the voice, allowing the basic melody to be reconstructed. Rhythmic indications are added to the dances, ‘included for those who know how the tune should be sung’, to provide an accompaniment for familiar melodies. Di Micheli claimed to have taken the songs from other publications, where the vocal line was fully notated, in particular from works, now lost, by Mario Albioso, Silvestro Orlando and Pietro Renda....


Rudolf Klein

(b Düsseldorf, May 25, 1927). Austrian musicologist of German origin. He studied musicology, art history and philosophy at the University of Göttingen (1948–54) and received the doctorate in 1954 under Rudolf Gerber with a dissertation on Weerbeke's motets. After working for three years on a scholarship from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft he became assistant lecturer in 1959 at the University of Münster, Westphalia, where two years later he completed his Habilitation with a work on Steffani. In 1966 he was appointed to the newly created chair of musicology at Salzburg. He was made professor emeritus in 1993.

Croll worked initially in the field of sacred music of the 15th and 16th centuries, but after submitting his doctoral dissertation he turned to Italian and German Baroque opera as well as to music of the Classical era. One of the editors of the Weerbeke Gesamtausgabe and Gluck's Sämtliche Werke, he was editor-in-chief of the latter from ...


John Whenham

(b Rome; d probably in Rome, July 1665). Italian composer, singer and instrumentalist. In a letter of 3 December 1633 Fulvio Testi commended her to Duke Francesco I of Modena as a master of her art – she composed and played the spinet – and one of the two finest female singers in Rome (‘though the most sensitive detect a little hoarseness in her voice’). She was probably the Francesca, daughter of Andrea Campana of Rome, who became the wife of the composer Giovan Carlo Rossi (possibly after 1633, since Testi mentions no husband) and thus sister-in-law of Luigi Rossi. Her extant music includes two pieces published in 1629 (RISM 1629¹) – a florid setting for solo voice of the canzonet Pargoletta vezzosetta and a continuo madrigal for two voices, Donna, se ’l mio servir – and Arie a 1, 2, e 3 voci op.1 (Rome, 1629). As its title implies, this latter volume consists largely of strophic songs; most of them are in triple or in alternating triple and duple time, and some include virtuoso passages. The volume opens with a sonnet setting for solo voice, ...


Nigel Fortune

(b Moncalieri, nr Turin, probably between 1580 and 1590; d 1626 or later). Italian composer and musician. He came of a long-established family whose members had included painters and a royal doctor. He became a musician in the service of the court of Savoy at Turin. In 1619 a number of students destined for careers in music or the church were assigned to his care. During the next few years he deputized for Sigismondo d’India, director of court chamber music who was often absent, as a composer of occasional music for court use which he published in his op.2 of 1623. In that year d’India left the court, but Albini did not succeed him. He soon became instead a musician to Cardinal Maurizio, son of the Duke of Savoy, Carlo Emanuele I. This position, which he held when his op.4 appeared in 1626, probably necessitated his spending most of his time in Rome. His surviving music is contained in two similar volumes: ...


(b Salzwedel, 1508; d Magdeburg, 1554). German Lutheran pastor and music theorist . After early studies in Hamburg he went to Wittenberg and became conrector there in about 1534. In 1537 he went to Magdeburg and served as pastor in several churches. He wrote a treatise entitled De musica (I-PLcom...


Pier Paolo Scattolin

(b Naples; d before 1602). Italian lutenist and composer. He was a sufficiently well-known player to be mentioned, together with his father Vincencello and his brother Pompeo, by Cerreto in 1601 as being among the ‘outstanding lute players of the city of Naples now no longer alive’. His works are included in Pietro Vinci’s Madrigali libro primo (Venice, 1561; ed. MRS, v, 1985) and also in two collections (1568¹² and 159918). One canzone francese and an intabulated madrigal are in a 16th-century manuscript lute tablature (in D-B ).

Cerreto also mentioned that Gioan Antonio Severino was a living lute composer; he was certainly a relative. All the musicians in this family were known by the name ‘della Viola’ and by the name of their place of origin, ‘napolitano’.

S. Cerreto: Della prattica musica vocale et strumentale (Naples, 1601/R), 157, 159P.E. Carapezza...


Paula Morgan


(b Binghamton, NY, Aug 7, 1937). American musicologist. He studied musicology with William G. Waite and Richard Crocker and the harpsichord with Ralph Kirkpatrick at Yale University (BA 1958), taking the doctorate there in 1965 with a dissertation on Odington’s Summa de speculatione musice. He was an instructor at the University of Chicago (1962–5), and taught at Queens College, CUNY (1966–8), and UCLA (1968–91). Since 1989 he has been Irma Brandeis Professor of Romance Culture and Music History at Bard College, New York. Hammond’s research has concentrated on 17th-century Italian keyboard music, especially the life and works of Frescobaldi; he is also interested in musical and artistic patronage in 17th-century Italy. As a professional harpsichordist and organist he has performed in the United States, Canada and Europe and has made a number of recordings. He was founder of and has continued to direct the E. Nakamichi Festival of Baroque Music in Los Angeles....


Ronald Shaheen

(b Venice, Aug 12, 1760; d Venice, 1845). Italian librettist. He was educated partly at a Jesuit college and became an archivist; later he held several government posts. Foppa was a prolific author: he wrote novels, poetry and plays, and translated many French dramatic works into Italian. Foppa’s father was an amateur violinist, and music-making was important in the household (Galuppi was a close friend). Foppa studied singing with Girolamo Fortuni and harmony with Francesco Bianchi and Carlo Faggi, organist at S Marco. He was on familiar terms with Ferdinando Bertoni and other Venetian composers. During the 1790s he participated in Venetian musical life, particularly around the four ospedali. For the Mendicanti he wrote the texts for several oratorios and cantatas, many of which were set by Mayr.

Foppa’s first opera libretto was Alonso e Cora, produced during Carnival 1786. By the end of his career in 1819...


Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Giulio Ongaro

(b ?Venice, 1492; d mid-16th century). Italian instrumentalist and writer. He was the author of two treatises on instrumental performance. Ganassi joined the pifferi of the Venetian government in June 1517, when he was hired as ‘contralto’ to fill a vacancy. From the 1517 document it is clear that his nickname ‘dal Fontego’ was derived from his place of residence near (or at) the Venetian ‘Fontego’, the palace by the Rialto where German merchants lived and traded. He is also mentioned in a few other documents from the late 1540s, and he might be the ‘Silvestro del cornetto’ who rented a storeroom near the Rialto in 1566. In his capacity as ‘piffero del Doge’ he probably supplied ceremonial and court music for the Doges and instrumenal music at the Basilica di S Marco.

Ganassi published two treatises, one on the recorder, Opera intitulata Fontegara (Venice, 1535), and one in two volumes on the viola da gamba, ...


Carolyn Gianturco

revised by Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Piove di Sacco, Padua, May 23, 1916). Italian musicologist. She studied at Milan University with Antonio Banfi, taking her degree in 1940. She became librarian of the Brera National Library, Milan, in 1942 and later worked as an editor for Ricordi (1961–3). In 1965, with Sartori, she founded the Ufficio Ricerca Fondi Musicali, the music section of the Brera National Library (now in the Milan Conservatory), becoming its director in 1981, and has since worked to fulfil its aim of gathering catalogues of all known Italian collections of music making it the bibliographical centre for the country’s music. She was director of the Messina University Library (1969–70) and from 1971 has been coordinator of the Italian committee for RILM. From 1977 to 1994 she was responsible for the Italian branch of IAML. Her main research interests in Romantic music and philosophy have led to the translation of important works by Hanslick and Hoffmann and to studies of musical expression....


Hanns-Bertold Dietz


(d Naples, Aug 1774). German musician and teacher, active in Italy. Sponsored by the archbishop, Cardinal Spinelli, he entered the Neapolitan Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù on 15 December 1736, where he was registered as ‘Giuseppe Doll di Baviera, todesco’. His teachers were Francesco Durante and, after 1738, Francesco Feo. In 1749 his cantata Per la solenne esposizione del Ss sagramento ( I-FOLc ), on a text by Guiseppe Ercolani, was performed in Foligno. On 1 December 1755, after the death of Durante, he and Carlo Cotumacci joined Girolamo Abos as maestri at the Conservatorio di S Onofrio a Capuana in Naples. The institution’s Libro maggiore for 1755–7 shows that three teachers were treated as equals in rank and salary. Doll was the only non-Italian ever to become a maestro of a Neapolitan conservatory. In 1757 Gaetano Grossatesta, impresario of the Teatro S Carlo, characterized him as ‘giovane virtuoso e capece’ and suggested that he be commissioned with an opera, but nothing came of it. Mozart, who met Doll in Naples, wrote to his sister on ...


Paolo Emilio Carapezza and Giuseppe Collisani

(b Milazzo, nr Messina, c1565; d Turin, 1617). Italian composer. According to Mongitore he was director of the royal chapel of Felipe III of Spain, and then almoner to the Duke of Savoy at Turin. He was a scholar and a priest and came from a noble family; he held a high opinion of his own aptitude for music ‘at which I have shown astonishing skill since boyhood’. In Le risa a vicenda, edited in 1598 by Flaccomio and dedicated to Cardinal Del Monte, nine composers set a two-part madrigal for five voices (a proposta–risposta between two lovers) from which the entire collection takes its title. Alternating with these nine works are ten settings of different texts: the first and last madrigals form a frame, their texts referring to the main poem, and most of the other eight texts are at least loosely connected with it. The book is therefore an example of the fashion of the time for madrigal anthologies with a unifying literary theme. The first setting of the title poem, by Gerolamo Lombardo, ...


Lynda Sayce

[Franchi, Giovanni Maria]

(b c1500/10; d c1565). Lute maker, possibly of German origin, active in Italy. He was married to Margarita del fu Michele Strazarolo and was in Bologna from at least 1546 until at least 1564. He is sometimes described as ‘Romano’ in Bolognese documents, and may have previously worked in Rome. He has frequently been confused with another Hans Frei, son-in-law of Albrecht Dürer, who may perhaps have been the father of the lute maker; the error originated with Baron in 1727.

Frei's workshops are recorded first in the parish of San Giacomo dei Carbonesi (by 1548), and later in the Via San Mamolo close to that of Luca Maler (from 1554). The San Mamolo workshop was continued after Frei’s death by his sons, Giovanni Giulio (d 1622) and Gasparo (d 1626). In spite of numerous records of real estate purchase and financial transactions, Frei's business seems to have been on a much smaller scale than Maler's, but his lutes were renowned. John Evelyn recorded a visit to Bologna in ...


Howard E. Smither

( b Florence, July 21, 1515; d Rome, May 26, 1595). Italian saint and religious leader . He pursued his early education in Florence, partly at the Dominican friary of S Marco. By 1534 he was a pupil in Rome, but within a year he abandoned his studies to devote his life to prayer and charitable works. In 1548 he founded the Confraternita della SS Trinità to assist needy pilgrims who flocked to Rome. In 1551 he entered the priesthood; within a year he began to attract a small group of laymen who met daily at his living quarters at S Girolamo della Carità to discuss religious topics and to pray together. By 4 attendance at these gatherings had become so great that they w transferred to the church loft which was remodelled as an oratorio (oratory or prayer hall). In the informal spiritual exercises held there Neri introduced the singing of the ...



[obligo] (It.: ‘obligation’)

A 17th-century term indicating a compositional problem or task which the composer chooses to treat throughout a piece. An example is Frescobaldi's Ricercar ottavo (from Ricercari, et canzoni francese fatte sopra diversi oblighi, 1615), in which the voice parts have the ‘obligation’ to avoid conjunct motion entirely (‘obligo di non uscire mai di grado’). More frequently the term indicates that the subject or theme – usually written at the head of the composition in solmization syllables, as in Frescobaldi's Ricercar quarto, obligo mi re fa mi (1615) – forms the chosen structural basis of the piece. In such pieces the ‘obligation’ is to maintain consistently the identity of the theme, which may be treated imitatively or canonically as a kind of migrant cantus firmus, or as an ostinato in one voice (e.g. Frescobaldi's Ricercar con obligo del basso come appare in Fiori musicali, 1635). Romano Micheli's Musica vaga et artificiosa continente motetti con oblighi, et canoni diversi...