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Article

Craig H. Russell

(Sp.)

A Spanish dance-song and musical pattern used as a basis for variation in the 17th and 18th centuries. It belongs to the class of dances known as bailes (as opposed to the more restrictive and subdued danzas), and as such allowed movements of the hands, hips and upper body. Its origins may be traceable to Calderón de la Barca’s entremés Las jácaras, in which the character Mari Zarpa strolls about forever singing the jácara; its melodic features resemble certain motivic cells that were virtually obligatory in jácara improvisations.

The marizápalos is nearly always written in A minor or D minor, an important exception being Santiago de Murcia’s G minor setting of sweeping proportions found in his Resumen de acompañar la parte con la guitarra (engraved Antwerp, 1714; published Madrid, 1717), arguably the best composition in this publication. Unlike many of the Spanish bailes and danzas, which were based on prescribed chordal progressions with no obligatory ‘tune’, the ...

Article

Manfred Schuler

(b Göppingen, c1495; d Pforzheim, March 4, 1556). German organist. He matriculated at Heidelberg University in 1512, and was vicar-choral and organist in Horb am Neckar from 1516 to 1517 and in Esslingen am Neckar from 1517 to 1521. From 1521 until his death he was organist at the collegiate and parish church in Pforzheim where he also had a living. In 1541 the Margrave of Baden procured for him a benefice in the hospital church in Baden-Baden. To judge from his large number of pupils, Kleber must have been a much sought-after organ teacher.

Kleber is known chiefly for the 332-page organ tablature which he compiled between 1521 and 1524 in Pforzheim ( D-Bim Mus.40026, ed. in EDM, 1st ser., xci–xcii, 1987). Several scribes were involved in copying the 112 items, of which only a few can be identified as original compositions: in most cases they are adaptations of vocal models. Whereas the first section of the tablature contains pieces to be played on manuals, the second section contains arrangements which also use the pedals. The repertory is the normal one for tablatures of the period, and includes religious and secular song settings, arrangements of motets, some settings of dance tunes, free compositions and one didactic piece. Most pieces give no indication either of the composer or of the arranger, but vocal models for a number of the arrangements are by Brumel, Josquin, Heinrich Finck, Hayne van Ghizeghem, Hofhaimer, Isaac, Obrecht, La Rue and Senfl. In addition there are compositions by Conrad Brumann, Hans Buchner, Othmar Luscinius, Jörg Scharpff and Utz Steigleder. It is not certain whether Kleber was a composer as well as an arranger (Kotter may also have arranged some of the pieces). From a historical point of view the most interesting section of the manuscript is that containing the free compositions, for it shows an early stage in the development of independent instrumental music. Both the repertory and the method of adaptation in Kleber's organ tablature reflect the south-west German organ and keyboard style at the beginning of the Reformation....

Article

G.B. Sharp

(b Mühlberg, nr Gotha, Sept 9, 1670; d Erfurt, Dec 31, 1699). German composer and organist. He studied law as well as music. He held organ posts at Erfurt, successively at the Reglerkirche, Andreaskirche and Kaufmannskirche. Although he wrote little because of his early death, his chorale-preludes were very popular in his day, judging from the numbers of manuscript copies of them circulating in Germany. Allein Gott in der Höh' sei Ehr is a charming trio, with the modified tune in the discant in canon with the real tune in the pedals, while Allein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ exemplifies the ornamental discant chorale. Such pieces bear out Jakob Adlung's view in the following century that Armsdorff wrote music grateful to the ear.

Article

Barton Hudson

(b Elvas, c1555; d probably at Lisbon, c1635). Portuguese composer and organist. He probably began his musical studies at Elvas Cathedral about 1563 and may also have studied at Badajoz Cathedral, where he served as temporary organist from 1573 to 1577. During the 1580s he returned as organist to Elvas Cathedral, where he remained until in 1602 he became king’s chaplain and organist at the Lisbon court. He retired on 13 October 1633.

Rodrigues Coelho's only known published collection, Flores de musica pera o instrumento de tecla & harpa (Lisbon, 1620/R; ed. in PM, i, iii, 1959–61; xxv, 1974), the earliest surviving keyboard music printed in Portugal. Its contents span his creative life up to 1620. The most important are the 24 tentos (three for each tone), several of which are between 200 and 300 bars long. They are based on the imitative treatment of one or more themes in long notes, which are enhanced by much lively figuration with dotted and triplet figures sometimes repeated as many as 40 times consecutively. The themes are not related to each other. Dissonance is rare, and the broken-keyboard device (...

Article

Rudolf A. Rasch

(fl 2nd half of the 17th century). Dutch composer. He came from Groenlo [Overijssel] and became a citizen of Amsterdam in 1658. His works appear in a 17th-century Dutch keyboard manuscript, which Curtis has named the ‘Gresse Manuscript’ (Letteren-Bibliotheek, Utrecht; selections ed. in MMN, iii, 1961). The first section of the manuscript, presumably compiled about 1660–70, contains simple settings of song- and dance-tunes. The second and more important section, dating from the last quarter of the century, includes suites, preludes, canzonas and single dance pieces, as well as settings of operatic airs by Lully. Alongside anonymous pieces and pieces attributable to other composers are a number ascribed to Gresse. They are arranged in suites, following French keyboard practice and the style of the third quarter of the 17th century, but they maintain a northern vein. The musician Franciscus Grebbe, employed by the Amsterdam Theatre in 1681, was certainly related to him....

Article

Almonte Howell

revised by François Sabatier

(b Reims, bap. Sept 8, 1672; d Reims, Nov 30, 1703). French organist and composer. He came from a family several of whom were organists and town musicians: his father and grandfather and one of his paternal uncles were all organists in Reims. From 1693 to 1695 he was organist at the abbey church of St Denis in Paris, where his brother André was sub-prior; he was apparently a pupil of Lebègue at this period. In 1695 he married a Parisian merchant’s daughter. The record of the birth of the first of his seven children shows that by 1696 he was back in Reims, and within a year he was organist at the cathedral, although the exact date of his appointment is unknown. He held this position until his death, the year before which he agreed to give his services as organist to the parish church of St Symphorien in Reims....

Article

[Paulus, Meister Pauls]

(b Radstadt, Jan 25, 1459; d Salzburg, 1537). Austrian organist and composer. The date of his birth is derived from the non-speculative section of the astrologer Garcaeus’s Methodus (Basle, 1570). According to the humanist Joachim Vadian, Hofhaimer was self-taught; however, Conradus Celtis wrote that he learnt to play the organ at the court of Emperor Frederick III. From 1478 he was at the court of Duke Sigmund of Tyrol in Innsbruck, and in 1480 he was given a life appointment as an organist. In 1486 he travelled at the command of his employer to Frankfurt for the coronation of Maximilian I as King of the Romans. Without giving up his previous post, Hofhaimer also served Maximilian from 1489. In that year the Hungarian queen, Beatrice, tried in vain to attract him to her court. A journey with Maximilian I's Kantorei to the Netherlands in 1494 brought him into contact with the Saxon Elector Frederick the Wise, whose court he visited again in ...

Article

George J. Buelow

[Nikolaus]

(b Wechmar, Thuringia, 1665; d Schleswig, winter 1711–12). German composer and organist. Mattheson reported that for four years from the age of seven, in 1688, he studied keyboard performance and composition with Hanff in Hamburg. Before 1696 Hanff was appointed court organist to the Prince-Bishop of Lübeck at his residence at Eutin. When the court at Eutin was dissolved after the death of Bishop August Friedrich in 1705, he apparently returned to Hamburg; at least two of his sons were born there during the next few years, in 1706 and 1711 respectively (Mattheson was godfather on the latter occasion). Hanff was promised the post of cathedral organist at Schleswig, but the position did not become vacant until 1711; he took over the position on 26 August 1711 but died a few months later. Of his compositions only three church cantatas and six organ chorale preludes survive. The cantatas are good examples of those that follow north German models, with a typical reliance on contrasting performing groups (e.g. chorus–soloist–chorus) as well as on sections in different tempos. The chorale preludes, which exist in copies made by J.G. Walther, are generally in the style developed by Buxtehude with the chorale melodies expressively ornamented in the upper keyboard part. One example, however, ...

Article

H. Colin Slim

(b c1525; d after 1577). Italian composer, son of Marco Antonio Cavazzoni. Mischiati placed his birth between 1506 and 1512, when both his father and Pietro Bembo were in Urbino, on the basis of a confusion between him and Girolamo de Adaldis, an organist at Mantua from about 1520 to 1564. Certainly, Cavazzoni said that he was born while his father was in Bembo's service, but in the preface to his first publication (Intavolatura libro primo, 1543) he referred to himself as ‘quasi fanciullo’ (probably about 17). He obtained a privilege from the Venetian senate on 31 October 1542 for the printing of this volume. The second volume, which carries no publication date, must have been printed before 1549, the date of the death of its dedicatee, Benedetto Accolti, Cardinal of Ravenna. Ortensio Landi referred to a ‘Girolamo d’Urbino’ in his Cathaloghi (Venice, 1552) as one of the best musicians of that period; and three of Cavazzoni's works were reprinted after ...

Article

Jeffery T. Kite-Powell

(b ?Schleswig, d Visby, Gotland, June 3, 1670). Swedish organist and composer of German birth. He went to Visby, on the Swedish island of Gotland, about 1630 as a poor music student in search of his brother. In 1633 he was appointed assistant organist to David Herlicius at the cathedral there, and at Herlicius's death in 1638 he became organist and registrar. He retained these posts until his death. On his arrival at Visby he had in his possession an organ tablature (now in S-VIl ) copied in 1611 by Berendt Petri, who was probably a pupil of Jacob Praetorius (ii) in Hamburg. On the inside cover (now missing) he wrote ‘Johann Bahr organ m.m.: Anno 1638’, and for this reason the book is often misleadingly referred to as the Johann Bahr Tablature Book. His ownership of it suggests that he studied with Praetorius or Petri. The book contains compositions by Praetorius and his father, Hieronymus, as well as many anonymous pieces, possibly by the latter. On pages left blank by Petri, Bahr wrote out two organ pieces and two vocal concertos of his own composition (all ed. in Kite-Powell). The ...

Article

Almonte Howell

(b Paris, c1653; d Rouen, June 30, 1706). French organist and composer. He received his first schooling at the Hôpital des Quinze-Vingts, a Parisian institution for the blind (where his father was an inmate), and held the post of organist there from 1663 to 1674. In July 1674 he became organist at Notre Dame Cathedral, Rouen, after winning a competition in both performance and composition; he remained there until his death. Between 1686 and 1689 he oversaw the building there by Robert Clicquot of a magnificent organ to replace the previous instrument, destroyed by a storm in 1683. A letter of 1689 reflects his enthusiasm for the new instrument, with more than 40 ranks, four manuals and manual-to-pedal couplers. He also served at St Herbland from 1697 to 1702.

Each of Boyvin’s books contains eight suites arranged according to the church modes. There are fewer individual pieces in book 2 than in book 1 (51 as against 69), but they tend to be longer and more elaborate. There are no liturgical designations. The music of both books is predominantly secular and colouristic, and exploits the registers of the new Clicquot instrument through such forms as the prelude or ...

Article

John Caldwell

(from Lat. introitus)

Vocal polyphonic introits are not very common, but there are English examples from the Middle Ages, for example in the Worcester Fragments (ed. in MSD, ii (1957), nos.9, 64, both troped settings of Salve sancta parens). There are 15th-century settings from the Continent, for example in plenary masses such as Du Fay's Missa Sancti Jacobi and in the Trent codices, which include a lengthy cycle of Propers ( I-TRmp 88, 113v–220r, with some interruptions, a total of 14 cycles). It is almost always present in requiem masses, frequently being joined to the Kyrie in post-Renaissance examples (e.g. Mozart, Verdi).

The instrumental introit replaces all or part of the sung liturgical introit of the Mass. Usually the plainchant of the antiphon was set in full as an organ piece, leaving the psalm verse and the doxology to be sung in plainchant. It is not clear whether the organ piece was meant to replace only one performance of the antiphon or two or three. There are three such settings in the Buxheimer Orgelbuch (...

Article

James W. McKinnon

(Lat.: ‘a beater of organs’)

The term appears in a number of medieval texts, where it means simply a ‘player of the organ’. Some 20th-century writers on the organ, however, have explained the word ‘pulsator’ by claiming that the cumbersome keys of the medieval organ could be depressed only by a blow of the fist.

The Latin verb pulsare (which means to beat not only in the sense of to strike but also to palpitate) has been associated since classical times with the playing of musical instruments. For example pulsare lyram (‘to play the lyre’) was in common Roman usage with no connotation of heavy beating. The application of such a connotation to medieval organ playing can be traced to 19th-century Germany, where the similarity of pulsator organorum to Orgelschläger was observed. The German phrase did indeed mean a beater of organs (it occurs in Johann Seidel’s influential Die Orgel und ihr Bau, Breslau, 1843...

Article

Howard Ferguson

(b mid-16th century; d after 1607). Italian composer and organist. From the dedication he wrote for his son Giulio's posthumous Concerti per sonare et cantare (RISM 16078) we learn that he spent his early life in Carinthia in the service of the family of the Count of Frankenburg. According to Tebaldini, he applied unsuccessfully for the post of organist at the cappella of S Antonio, Padua in 1579. The title-page of his Primo libro d'intavolatura di balli d'arpicordo (1592) described him as organist of S Giovanni di Verdara, Padua, a post he still held in 1598, when his anthology, Madrigali de diversi, was published.

Radino's most important music is contained in the Primo libro d'intavolatura d'arpicordo, the first Italian collection of dances for which the harpsichord is specified. A version for lute, Intavolatura di balli per sonar al liuto, appeared in the same year. Each contains a passamezzo paired with a galliard, two paduanas and four separate galliards. The two versions differ, however, not only in details of texture and layout but also occasionally in structure: for example, in the lute version of the passamezzo there is an additional variation, and the order of its sections is changed. Radino's keyboard writing consists mainly of a single-line melodic part in the right hand interspersed with some chords, plus a fuller left-hand accompaniment. But whereas Marco Facoli, his predecessor in the publication of dance tablature, used only plain chords with passing tones for his accompaniments, Radino occasionally introduced imitation between the hands and at times gave the left hand the principal part. He thus made an important contribution to the development of the keyboard dance in Italy....

Article

(b Oederan, nr Zwickau, c1595; d ?Dresden, 1659 or later). German composer, organist and music publisher. In 1605 he was engaged as a boy soprano for the Tafelmusik at the electoral court at Dresden and in 1612 was appointed as an instrumentalist there. The following year he went to Augsburg to study at the elector's expense with the renowned organist Christian Erbach, with whom he remained until at least 1615. When he returned to Dresden, he started working at composition under Schütz; this led to a long-lasting association between the two men typical of the close ties that Schütz formed with many of his pupils. In 1625 he was appointed court organist; his duties included responsibility for the musical education of the choirboys, and in this capacity he taught the organ to Matthias Weckmann. He also became active as a music publisher, first in partnership with Daniel Weixer, later with Alexander Hering. His publications included some of his own music as well as collections by his teacher Schütz (the second set of ...

Article

Roland Jackson

(b Naples, c1565; d Naples, March 9, 1627). Italian composer, organist and harpist. He studied in Naples with G.D. da Nola; Camillo Lambardi was a fellow pupil. In 1593 he succeeded Scipione Stella as organist at the church of SS Annunziata with a salary of eight ducats per month. From 1595 he shared the duties of maestro di cappella with Lambardi. He remained at SS Annunziata until 1621 at the earliest, perhaps until his death. Scipione Cerreto listed him in 1601 among the excellent performers on the organ and the harp ‘a due ordini’ (a chromatic harp capable of playing sharps and flats). In 1602 he was appointed second organist of the royal chapel of the Spanish viceroys (the first organist was Trabaci). He probably performed in the houses of Marthos de Gorostiola and G.B. Suardo, Neapolitan noblemen to whom he dedicated his keyboard volumes. He became first organist of the royal chapel in ...

Article

Adriano Cavicchi

(b Ferrara; fl 1614). Italian composer, theorist and organist. He was an Observant Franciscan friar and is known only by the first book of his Choro et organo … in cui con facil modo s’apprende in poco tempo un sicuro methodo per sonar su l’organo messe, antifone, & hinni sopra ogni maniera di canto fermo (Venice, 1614). It is a didactic work dealing with the liturgical duties of the choirmaster and organist. Under 18 headings Bottazzi set out the principal rules of counterpoint and provided guidance that would enable the organist to respond in the correct mode and with good counterpoint to the plainchant of the choir. The intabulations of the organ responses are printed. The volume includes several organ works by Bottazzi: three masses, two Credo settings, hymns for the whole year, Marian antiphons and a ricercare cromatico. Although clearly didactic in character, they are not lacking in a liveliness and musicality characteristic of the Ferrara organ school: the ricercare is a notably poetic and well-constructed piece and the hymns, which are among the last examples of the genre, are also interesting. Bottazzi was a minor representative of the Ferrara organ school, but his book is of particular interest for the light it sheds on the traditions, forms, and manner of performance of Italian organ music based on plainchant in the late 16th and early 17th centuries....

Article

(b Tönning, Schleswig, Jan 11, 1642; d Merseburg, June 14, 1710). German composer and organist. A versatile man, he studied theology at Rostock, intending to enter the ministry. Dogged by ill-health he read law instead at Leipzig University, concurrently studying music with Werner Fabricius to such good purpose that Duke Christian I of Saxony appointed him organist at his court and at Merseburg Cathedral. Alberti also studied with Vincenzo Albrici. An apoplectic stroke caused paralysis, which incapacitated him for the last 12 years of his life.

Although Alberti apparently wrote much sacred and keyboard music, unfortunately only four chorale compositions survive (they are in various manuscripts, mainly in libraries in Berlin, and they have been included in several modern anthologies of organ music such as Orgelmeister des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts, ed. K. Matthaei, Kassel, 1933; 80 Choralvorspiele des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts, ed. H. Keller, Leipzig, 1937...

Article

Gwilym Beechey

(b Speinshart, Upper Palatinate, Nov 9, 1664; d Augsburg, c1720). German organist and composer. He received his first musical education from Dominikus Lieblein, abbot of the Premonstratensian monastery at Speinshart. On 4 November 1692 he was appointed organist of Augsburg Cathedral; he resigned in 1694 but lived in Augsburg until his death.

The pieces in the three parts of Speth’s Ars magna were intended primarily for the organ, although according to the preface they could be played on the clavichord. Walther (1732) said that Speth collected these pieces and was not their composer; this seems unlikely, although he may have composed some of the pieces as early as 1680.

Article

Barton Hudson

(fl mid-17th century). Italian composer. All that is known of Storace’s life derives from the title-page of his sole collection of music: in 1664 he was vicemaestro di cappella to the senate of Messina, Sicily. Since the music was published in Venice and seems more akin to that of northern Italy than to that of the Neapolitan-Roman school, it may be inferred that he originated in the north. It is not known whether he was an antecedent of the Storace family active in England at the end of the 18th century.

Storace’s surviving music is all contained in his Selva di varie compositioni d’intavolatura per cimbalo ed organo (Venice, 1664/Rin Archivum musicum: collana di testi rari, xiii (Florence, 1979); ed. in CEKM, vii, 1965). It is an important link between that of Frescobaldi and Pasquini. He concentrated on larger structures in the form of variations on bass patterns. One group of nine, including variations on passamezzo, romanesca, ...