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Jean During

revised by John Baily


Term applied to various types of long-necked fretted lute in Central Asia and Iran (in Iran it is usually rendered as ‘dotār’). The name derives from Persian, meaning ‘two strings’, but some kinds of dutār have more than two.

The various types of dutār are thought to derive from the ancient ṭunbūr of Khorāssān (Khorāssān being a historical region now divided between Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan, and also the name of a large province of north-eastern Iran; see Ṭanbūr). In their various forms, dutārs are known by the ethnic group with which they are associated (Uzbek, Tajik, Turkmen or Uighur) or the region where they are found (Khorāssān or Herat). Common features of the dutār are its long, slightly tapering neck; a soundtable (belly) made of mulberry wood; the use of frets; and (originally) two strings which used to be of silk or gut. Silk strings are still used on the Uzbek amd Uighur ...


Rüdiger Schumacher

(b Zeitz, Jan 13, 1925). German ethnomusicologist. After studying composition with Boris Blacher at the Musikhochschule in West Berlin (1947–53), he studied ethnomusicology (with Kurt Reinhard) and anthropology (with Hans Nevermann and Sigrid Westphal-Hellbusch) at the Freie Universität, Berlin. In 1960 he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Corsican lament melodies. He was a research fellow at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies (1963–6) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (1967–70) and from 1968 he taught ethnomusicology at Heidelberg University. He was appointed professor of ethnomusicology at Zürich University in 1971. He retired in 1990. He was awarded the Sigillo d'Oro from the Istituto Internazionale de Etnostoria and was made an honorary life member of the European Seminar in Ethnomusicology.

Laade's work has been concentrated on the regions Corsica and Tunisia as well as Australia, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia, Sri Lanka, India and Taiwan. His writings are concerned chiefly with myths, folk tales and legends along with their related music in oral traditions and the interdisciplinary reading of ‘meaning’ in musical structures and other art forms. He has also examined the local histories of diverse ethnic groups in regard to their migration patterns....


Reis Flora and Alastair Dick

[nāgasuram, nāyaṉam]

Conical shawm of South India. Although the term is mentioned in texts from the middle of the 1st millennium ce onwards it is unclear if this relates to a precursor of the modern instrument and scholars remain divided on the question of the instrument’s origins. It is approximately 95 cm long, and its large double reed, of cane, is fashioned similarly to that of the Śahnāī. The reed is mounted on a short, stubby conical staple, which is inserted into a conical wooden pipe containing seven equidistant finger-holes, and no thumb-hole; five additional holes are bored near the distal end of the pipe, two on each side and one on top. These holes, which may or may not be completely or partially filled with wax, assist in tuning the instrument. A widely flared wooden bell is attached to the distal end of the pipe. Additional reeds, staples and supporting paraphernalia are strung and kept together, to be readily accessible during performance. Although the instrument exists in longer (...


Eckhard Neubauer

[Abū’l-Faraj ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥusayn]

(b Isfahan, 897; d Baghdad, 967). Arab man of letters, historian and poet. He lived in Baghdad and in Aleppo. As a writer on music he belongs to the school of Isḥāq al-mawṣilī (see Mawṣilī, al- family, §2), whose Kitāb al-aghānī al-kabīr (‘Great book of songs’) was the main source for al-Iṣfahānī’s principal work of the same name, which is said to have taken him 50 years to write. This comprehensive book covers Arab cultural history from pre-Islamic times to the early Abbasids, with emphasis on poetry and music. Its latest published edition comprises 24 volumes. Its arrangement follows that of Al-mi’at al-ṣawt al-mukhtāra (‘The 100 selected songs’) compiled by Isḥāq's father, Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī (see Mawṣilī, al- family and others, which was accessible to al-Iṣfahānī in the edition of ‘Alī ibn Yaḥyā al-Munajjim (d 888), a pupil of Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī. The texts of the songs are accompanied by notes on the compositions and their melodic (...


Mark Slobin, Sławomira Żerańska-Kominek and Fatima Abukova-Nurklycheva

Country in Central Asia.

Mark Slobin, revised by Sławomira Żerańska-Kominek

Turkmen traditional music culture has a highly distinctive character but also has ties with two large neighbouring areas, the Near East Turkestani region (Azerbaijan to Uzbekistan) and the Kazakh-Kyrghyz zone ( fig.1). Some of the traits shared with the former area are the ghidjak spike fiddle, the use of Arabo-Persian metric patterns, verse forms and imagery, the spread of the Görogly epic and recent romantic tales, and some microtonal scales. Characteristics relating more closely to the Kazakh and Kyrgyz region are the traditionally weak development of the dance, paucity of percussion instruments, use of the qobuz horsehair fiddle (now obsolete), singing contests, and a stress on instrumental music, particularly the high development of polyphonic lute styles with highly esteemed virtuoso performers. Some features of Turkmen music, such as the ÿar-ÿar wedding song, patterns of Turkic versification and use of a metal jew’s harp (...



Alan R. Thrasher


Transverse flute of the Han Chinese. Historically known by a variety of different names (e.g. hengchui, hengdi), the Chinese transverse flute is now generally known as di or dizi, though regional names exist as well.

The di is constructed from various species of bamboo, such as ‘purple bamboo’ (zizhu) and ‘arrow bamboo’ (jianzhu). The tube is closed at the blowing end with a cork, but open at the bottom (fig.1 ). Distributed along the upper surface are a blow-hole, membrane hole and six finger-holes, with two end-holes on the underside which define the length of the vibrating air column and may be used to attach a string or tassel. Other decorative holes may appear below these. Finger-holes on traditional flutes are roughly equidistant, producing a temperament of mixed whole-tone and three-quarter-tone intervals. The flute is normally wrapped with a dozen or more windings of silk thread or nylon line, and often tipped on both ends with decorative bone fittings. Covering the membrane hole is a vibrating membrane (...


Andrew N. Weintraub

(b Garut, Java, April 4, 1944; d September 29, 2010). Indonesian composer . In the early 1960s he worked as a high school music teacher and studied with the important Sundanese composer Koko Koswara. In 1972 Nano S. formed the group Gentra Madya, which in 1976 released its first cassette of original works for kacapi and gamelan saléndro. His songs, including Cinta (‘Love’, 1978), Anjeun (‘You’, 1984) and Kalangkang (‘Reflection’, 1986), achieved phenomenal success among popular audiences during the 1970s and 80s in conjunction with a very active Sundanese cassette industry. His non-commercial commissions include Spirit of Bandung for the 50th anniversary of the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung (1995) and Hiroshima for the government of Hiroshima (1999). He has also written operetta (gending karesmen), songs for children, poetry and fiction. Nano S. has helped to promote Sundanese music through international concert tours, teaching in the USA and Japan, and intercultural music collaborations. He has established an international reputation as a composer of Sundanese popular music (...



Alan R. Thrasher

Categorical name for Chinese drums. A prefix is usually attached to specify type. While of a wide variety in size and usage, most indigenous Chinese drums have a barrel-shaped body with two heads of oxhide tacked on (rather than laced together), and are struck on one head with two beaters. Pictographs from the Shang dynasty (c16th–11th centuries bce) and archaeological finds of two barrel-shaped drums (dating between the 13th and 10th centuries bce) attest to the appearance of such drums by that time. The excavated drums are made entirely of bronze (including their heads). They rest horizontally upon four short legs and are decorated with raised saddle-shaped images on their upper sides. One drum, found in Hubei province, is about 45 cm long, with a head diameter of about 40 cm; the other, now in a Japanese collection and of unknown provenance, is smaller. Historically known as ...



John Okell

Oboe of Myanmar. Among the Mon it is known as hnoa. It has a conical bore and a composite double reed, and is made in two sizes pitched a fifth apart. The small hnè-galeì is about 26 cm long and the larger hnè-gyì is about 40 cm long. Both instruments have a compass of two octaves, the lowest note of the large hnè being about c′, and that of the small hnè, g′. Both have seven equidistant fingerholes at the front and a thumbhole at the back, positioned halfway between the first and second fingerholes. The conical metal staple (thabut) continues the taper of the body.

The reed (hnè-gin) is made from young leaves of the toddy palm which are soaked and smoked for several months before being folded and cut into shape; about six to eight fan-shaped layers of the leaf are bound together with a thick cord. ...



Alan R. Thrasher

Large barrel drum of the Han Chinese. The jiangu (‘mounted drum’) has a moderately convex shell about 100 cm long, and two heads of cowhide about 70 to 80 cm in diameter secured to the shell by circumferential rows of tacks. The drum is mounted horizontally on a post anchored in a base of bronze or wood. The post passes through the shell, holding the drum approximately 170 cm above the base. Historically the drum was covered with an elaborate canopy, with tassels hanging from its corners, a feature retained in the main Confucian shrine drums and in the Korean kŏn’go. The drum is struck with two wooden beaters on one head only. A related drum of similar size is the yinggu (‘responding drum’), known in Korea as Ūnggo.

The jiangu is one of the most ancient Chinese drums. A similar drum is depicted in c12th-century bce oracle bone inscriptions, and a ...



Alastair Dick, Geneviève Dournon and Andrew Alter


Name for the bagpipe in the Indian subcontinent. In northern areas the traditional bagpipe has single-reed pipes, usually twinned, one for the melody and the other a drone. The name (Pers.: ‘leather bag’) suggests a Middle Eastern origin, though it is found also further south under different names (śruti upaṅga, bajānāśruti, titti), and there appears to be a stylistic relationship in its playing with the indigenous pūngī (double clarinet with gourd wind cap). In several areas—notably North-West Frontier Province (Pakistan), where it is called also bīṇ bājā, and Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (India)—it appears in the folk naubat or ceremonial band, replacing or supporting the śahnāī (oboe), though it also accompanies dance (Frontier Province) and popular lyrical music (Madhya Pradesh). Often the traditional maśak has been replaced by the Scottish Highland bagpipe, introduced by British regiments, with single-reed drones and double-reed chanter. In some places Scottish pipes have been adopted where the ...


Ernst Heins

revised by Andrew C. McGraw


Ensemble of Jakarta, Indonesia. It is an acculturated band whose music was heard formerly at festive occasions and processions in the streets of Jakarta, but by the 1970s only in the outskirts to the south and in the adjacent regions of Krawang (where it is also called orkes kompeni), Bekasi, and Tangerang. Similar ensembles have appeared in Palembang (South Sumatra) and Pontianak (West Kalimantan). The instruments of the tanjidor band are the Western clarinet, trumpet, cornet, euphonium (or tuba), trombone, bass and side drum (both called tambur), a small hand cymbal (kecrek) and large crash cymbal, both struck with metal beaters, and sometimes a small gong (kenong). The drums are typically struck with sticks, or by the hands when imitating Sundanese kendang. A helicon, tenor horns, saxophones, and violin may be added. The horns sometimes include locally constructed mouthpiece extensions that lower the fundamental pitches of the instruments. A singer may join when performing adapted ...



Alan R. Thrasher

End-blown flute of the Han Chinese, used in court rituals. Pictographs from the late Shang dynasty (c12th century bce) show what appears to be a small panpipe-type instrument, with bamboo pipes in a single raft bound together in the middle with fibre or cord. While disagreement exists as to whether this image represents a panpipe or two or more end-blown flutes bound together, the pictograph was ultimately equated with the character yue commonly interpreted as a panpipe. Yet, the about 3rd-century bce Zhouli text indicates that the yue is a single end-blown flute with three fingerholes; the name might simply have been transferred to an instrument of this type. The yue retained this end-blown form into the 12th century ce, when it was included in a large imperial gift to Korea. As employed nowadays in government-sponsored Confucian rituals (notably in Taiwan), the yue has become an unplayed ritual flute, a lacquered bamboo tube without notch or fingerholes, carried by young male dancers....



Margaret J. Kartomi


Bamboo ring flute of Indonesia, Malaysia and the southern Philippines. There are various types and sizes. The end-blown variety as it is commonly found is made from a bamboo tube, open at the bottom and closed with a node at the top. A small wedge-shaped hole is cut in the node, together with a small opening just below it, and this is partly covered by a narrow bamboo or rattan ring which guides the player’s breath along the slit between the hole and the ring (see Flute, figs.). In Central and East Java the tube is about 45 to 52 cm long and about 1·5 cm in diameter; the suling sléndro has four fingerholes, the suling pélog, five. In West Java the tube is about 53 cm long and about 2 cm wide. The instrument is played either alone or in ensembles, in which case it is often known by the name of the ensemble in question. The ...


Theodore Levin

(b Detroit, March 15, 1943). American ethnomusicologist . He received the BA (1964) and the PhD (1969) at Michigan University, the latter under W.P. Malm. In 1971 he was appointed to the faculty of Wesleyan University, where he was made professor in 1984. He served as editor of Asian Music (1972–87) president of the Society for Asian Music (1987–9) and president of the Society for Ethnomusicology (1989–91). The focus of his early work was the music of Central Asia, particularly of northern Afghanistan, where he conducted fieldwork (1967–8, 1971 and 1972). In the mid-1970s he turned his attention to Eastern European Jewish music, concentrating on music found in the USA. His ethnographic work on Yiddish songs, Yiddish theatre, Klezmer musicians and cantors was complemented by research and writing on the theory and method of ethnomusicology. He has been in the forefront of efforts to forge links between ethnomusicology and sister disciplines such as folklore, performance studies, anthropology, sociolinguistics and cultural studies; he has also made documentary videos and directed theatre projects. As an educator, he has played a key role in the development of the World Music Program at Wesleyan University and its model of a ‘world music community’. He has also worked to open up a dialogue with scholars in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe....



Jonathan P.J. Stock


Capital city of China. With a recorded history of some three millennia, Beijing has been one of China's principal centres since its selection as imperial capital by the invading Mongols in the late 13th century. Capital for much of the intervening seven centuries, Beijing has been an important location for many genres of Chinese music, including court music, religious music, theatrical and ballad-singing forms and, more recently, Western and Western-influenced styles.

Perhaps foremost among the traditional musical forms closely associated with Beijing is Beijing opera, formed in the late 18th century as a combination of operatic styles from south and central China. Troupes from outside the capital visited Beijing to take part in imperial celebrations; the best of these troupes then stayed on, establishing schools for the training of young actors and adopting aspects of the music, repertory and performance style of other incoming ensembles. A second significant tradition form particularly identified with Beijing is the local style of narrative singing ...


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

(b Lwów, June 25, 1929). Polish ethnomusicologist. She studied musicology with Adolf Chybiński and statistical methods with Jan Czekanowski at the University of Poznań (1947–52). She also studied theory of music and methodology under Józef Chomiński at Warsaw University. In 1958 she took the doctorate at Warsaw University with a dissertation on the songs of the Biłgoraj region, and in 1968 she completed the Habilitation at the same university with a dissertation on Slavonic folksong. Since 1969 she has been reader and head of the ethnomusicological department at Warsaw University, where she was appointed director of the Institute of Musicology in 1975, professor in 1976 and full professor in 1986, and since 1972 she has been head of the working group on the ethnogenesis of the Slavonic people at the Polish Academy of Sciences. She has been a visiting lecturer in ethnomusicology at the universities of Seattle (...


Joseph S.C. Lam

[given name, Shangquan ]

(fl 1522–72). Chinese composer, singer and theorist . He played a central role in developing the Kunshan qiang, a regional singing style of the Kunshan area of Jiangsu province that had first emerged in the middle decades of the 14th century, into a national genre of operatic music known as Kunqu that came to dominate the Chinese theatre from the late 16th century and the 17th.

Details of Wei’s biography are vague, but available data describe him as a singer of ‘northern arias’ (beiqu) from Jiangxi province who, after moving to Taicang in Jiangsu province, devoted himself to the development of Kunshan qiang. Finding the original Kunshan qiang bland and lacking in interest, he yet realized its expressive potential, and refined it by incorporating aspects from other contemporary vocal styles. His new version of the Kunshan qiang style featured melismatic melodies perfectly matching the linguistic tones of the lyrics, floating around the accompaniment of ...



Terry E. Miller

[Lao People’s Democratic Republic] (Saathiaranarath Prachhathipatay Prachhachhon Lao)

The Lao People's Democratic Republic is a small, landlocked country in mainland South-east Asia bordering Vietnam, China, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Cambodia. Before its partition into the princedoms of Luang Prabang, Vientiane (also spelt Viang Chan) and Champassak soon after 1700, the 14th-century kingdom of Lan Sang (‘Million Elephants’) was a significant power in the region. After 1827, when Siamese armies defeated the Lao and sacked Vientiane, most Lao-occupied territory west of the Mekong river was absorbed into Siam (present-day Thailand). Although much of the current population of north-east Thailand is culturally Lao, their music has developed on a different path, one influenced by Bangkok's modernization and the development of urban popular culture. About half of the 5·3 million population is comprised of upland, non-Lao-speaking groups, many of whom practise swidden agriculture on the mountainsides. The ethnic Lao population is concentrated in lowland valleys, especially along the Mekong and its tributaries, and on the Vientiane plain north of the capital. Laos was a kingdom until ...



Alan R. Thrasher

Mouth organ of the Han Chinese. It is especially prevalent in north and central-eastern China. The instrument is constructed of a bowl-shaped wind-chest of wood or metal (formerly of gourd), with a blow-pipe extending out from one side. Through the flat upper surface of the wind-chest, 17 (or more) bamboo pipes are inserted in an incomplete circle. The pipes are of varying graded lengths, the tallest pipes appearing on opposite sides of the circle (fig.1). This arrangement, according to the 2nd-century ce dictionary Shuowen Jiezi, represents the two folded wings of the mythical phoenix. Most pipes on traditional instruments are operational, with a free reed at the bottom of each (enclosed within the wind-chest), a small finger-hole (above the surface of the wind-chest) and an upper vent-hole which defines the vibrating length of each pipe. On traditional instruments, however, three or four pipes are usually mute (i.e. blocked and without reeds or finger-holes), their presence being to maintain the ‘phoenix-wing’ profile....