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Article

Ian Spink

( b Cambridge, Feb 1581; d London, bur. Dec 23, 1650). English organist, heraldic artist and possibly instrument maker . He was the son of Robert Norgate (d 1587), Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Subsequently Norgate’s mother married Nicholas Felton, later Bishop of Ely, in whose house he was brought up. Norgate went to London, where he served the king in numerous capacities.

In 1611 he was granted the office of tuner of the king’s virginals, organs and other instruments jointly with Andrea Bassano until the latter’s death in 1626. He is usually referred to as Keeper of the Organs, and payments were made to him for building a new organ at Richmond (£120 in 1639) and at various times between 1629 and 1641 for repairing the organs and virginals at other royal palaces. These payments may have been for arranging and overseeing the work rather than for carrying it out himself. During this period he held the post alone, but in ...

Article

David Lasocki, Denis Arnold and Fabio Ferraccioli

[Bassani, Piva]

Italian family of musicians, instrument makers and composers, active in England. The family originated in Bassano del Grappa, about 65 km north-west of Venice, where they were known as Piva. Jeronimo [Gieronymo, Hieronymus] (i) (d ?Venice, ?1546–50), the founder of the musical dynasty, is first recorded in a contract of his father's dated 24 March 1481; in February 1502 he and his eldest son Jacomo [Jacopo] (b ? Bassano, before 1488; d Venice, 1559–66) were engaged to tune the organs in the churches of Bassano. They seem to have made the move from Bassano to Venice shortly afterwards. Jeronimo was apparently the ‘Ser Jheronimo trombon’ who worked in the trombe e piffari of the Doge of Venice around 1506–12. Numerous documents call him ‘maestro’, probably indicating the leader of an ensemble or an instrument maker. Lorenzo Marucini (1577) describes him as ‘inventor of a new bass wind instrument’ and ‘most excellent ...

Article

(b Paris, 1589/90; d after 1648). French violinist, dancing-master and composer . He seems to have been the son of Guillaume Picart, master mat-maker, who had him apprenticed in Paris on 13 August 1602 for six years to the royal violinist Henri Picot; Picart was 12 at the time, and is recorded in Paris on his own account from 1608 to 1618. He is listed as Henrietta Maria's ‘mr a danser des filles d h’ (dancing-master to the Queen's maids of honour) in 1625, and may have been a member of her household before she came to England as Charles I's bride. He was given a place in the court violin band by a patent dated 22 November 1628, back-dated to Michaelmas 1627, and appears as a treble violin player in lists of the group from 1631 and 1634. He served until the beginning of the Civil War in ...

Article

Peter Holman

(b c1620; d London, Nov 21, 1688). English composer, cornett player, violinist and singer. He was the son of Richard Blagrave, wind player at Charles I's court, and joined his father in the cornett and sackbut consort in 1637, inheriting his place in 1641. He shared the role of Mustapha with Henry Purcell the elder in Davenant's The Siege of Rhodes (1656), and was one of Cromwell's musicians (probably 1657–8). At the Restoration, Blagrave took up his former post as a court wind player, also receiving a place in the Twenty-Four Violins; his nephew Robert served alongside him in this dual capacity. Thomas was also a member of the revived Chapel Royal, was made Clerk of the Cheque in 1662, and Master of the Choristers of Westminster Abbey (where he was buried) in 1664, though according to Anthony Wood he was ‘a player for the most part on the cornet’ in the Chapel Royal. Wood thought him ‘a gentile and honest man’, and Pepys often mentioned him in his diary. His portrait is in the Oxford Music Faculty, and two songs of his survive: ...

Article

Peter Le Huray

revised by Andrew Ashbee

(b Alphington, Devon, 1516; d London, July 2, 1613). English composer. His will mentions both his birthplace and his boyhood at Exeter Cathedral. He was probably the man sworn as probationary vicar choral at Wells on 16 August 1542. A list endorsed on 3 April 1546 records him as a member of the Chapel Royal, apparently as yeoman, a position he later held at the coronation of Edward VI. He was promoted to Gentleman before Edward VI’s death. He was still an active member of the chapel at the turn of the century. He was fourth in order of seniority (senior to Byrd) at the coronation of James I, and he regularly attended business meetings of the chapel choir at this time. The Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal records his death at the age of 97; in his will he left a house in Alphington. His popular setting of the Lord’s Prayer dates from about ...

Article

Ian Spink

(bap.July 7, 1661; d London, Dec 20, 1702). English singer, composer and organist. He was a lay clerk at Westminster Abbey from 1682 and organist of St Katherine Cree in the City of London from 1686. He held both posts concurrently with a place in the king's ‘private musick’ and the Chapel Royal from 1689; the latter ‘extraordinary’ at first, then advancing via epistler (1693) to a full place (1694). He sang tenor solos in Purcell's Hail, bright Cecilia (1692) and Celebrate this festival (1693). In 1696 he was granted the degree of MusB by Cambridge University.

27 songs by Snow (mostly rather undistinguished) occur in late 17th-century songbooks, especially in various issues of The Theater of Music (RISM 16855–16875; ed. in MLE, A1, 1983), Comes amoris (1686–16945), Vinculum societatis (16876...

Article

Ian Spink

revised by Matthew Spring

(b 1605–15; bur. London, Sept 14, 1676). English lutenist, brother of Benjamin Rogers. A 1652 entry in the diary of Lodewijck Huygens mentions him as the brother of Benjamin Rogers and that both were among a group of prominent musicians who had gathered at the home of Davis Mell to play concertos. One of Cromwell's musicians in 1658, Rogers succeeded to the illustrious place of Jacques Gautier (worth £100 p.a.) in the King's Music at the Restoration in 1660; this place is mentioned in one account as ‘musician in ordinary for the French lute’. Apart from a single piece entitled Arrons Jig, found in Thomas Salmon's An Essay to the Advancement of Musick (London, 1672), no music by Rogers survives. Musically the piece is of little interest, but it shows that Rogers taught and played in a form of D minor tuning pitched considerably higher than modern transcriptions of lute music would allow. Salmon wrote ‘I have chose this tuning [French B natural] … as 'tis that which the most excellent lutanist Mr John Rogers ordinarily teaches in London to his scholars’. William Chappell in his ...

Article

(b Thaxted, Essex, c1445; dWells, ?September 1505). English church musician and poet . The stepson of a schoolmaster, he was a chorister of King’s College, Cambridge, during 1455–6 and a scholar of Eton College from about 1459 to 1464, whence he returned to King’s College and graduated MGram in 1467/8. Through his position as tutor to the sons of nobility he came to the notice of Edward IV, by whom he was presented to a chaplaincy of the chantry of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral, a position that he occupied from 1474 to 1478. Probably he returned thence to the royal court, where he appears in 1491 as schoolmaster in Latin to the choristers of the Chapel Royal. In 1500 he entered residence as a canon and subdean of Wells Cathedral, where he was buried on 4 October 1505.

Among contemporaries he enjoyed celebrity as a poet and as an inaugural exponent in England of humanist ideals in the recovery of the classical Latin style; a few lines of his poetry have been preserved. Later reports that he may have studied in France and Italy cannot be verified. In addition, in ...

Article

Peter Holman

(b c1575; bur. Greenwich, July 24, 1651). English composer, string player and instrument maker. He may have been the son of Richard Farrant, Master of the Choristers at St George’s Chapel, Windsor and Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal. A birthdate of about 1575 would make Daniel Farrant a contemporary of John Coprario and Alfonso Ferrabosco II, who John Playford mentioned with Farrant in 1661 as ‘The First Authors of Inventing and Setting Lessons’ for lyra viol. On 23 November 1607 Farrant was given a place in the royal violin band at the court of James I. He is listed as a player of the viol in several documents of 1624 and 1625.

Farrant was an instrument maker as well as a player. On 27 February 1626 he was paid £109 for six ‘Artificiall Instruments’ ‘made and finished’ for royal service. Playford wrote that he was ‘a person of such ingenuity for his several rare inventions of instruments, as the Poliphant and the Stump, which were strung with wire’ and ‘a lyra viol, to be strung with lute strings and wire strings, the one above the other’. This cannot be taken at face value since Farrant would have been too young to have invented the poliphant or poliphon, which (Playford claimed elsewhere) Queen Elizabeth played, and at least three other individuals are connected with the invention of the lyra viol with sympathetic metal strings – the ancestor of the baryton. Nevertheless, it is likely that Farrant was involved in some way with the development of novel types of stringed instruments in Jacobean England....

Article

Peter Holman

(fl London, ?1675–1706). English composer and dancing-master. He was best known for ‘Mr. Motley's Maggot’, a dance-tune popular in the 1690s, which was sometimes called ‘The Emperor of the Moon’, suggesting that it was used in Thomas D'Urfey's play of the same name (1687, Dorset Garden Theatre). In an advertisement for his Collection of Ayres he is described as ‘Dancing-Master’. He dedicated its lively, functional dance music ‘To the Honourable and Worthy Gentlemen of Shropshire, and All Adjacent Counties’, so he presumably came from that area. He was perhaps the ‘Mr. Motley’ who danced in the court masque Calisto (1675).

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Article

Susi Jeans

revised by John Morehen

(b ?Lincoln; d ?London, Feb 18, 1602). English musician and composer . An entry in the Chapel Royal cheque book records that he was from Lincoln and was sworn in as a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in July 1588. The claim that he was organist of Lincoln Cathedral and the Chapel Royal is without foundation. According to Wood he spent several years studying practical and theoretical music and supplicated on 7 July 1592 for the degree of BMus at the University of Oxford. He is remembered for his extraordinary skill in the art of canon, which he demonstrated in his 1163 canons on the plainsong Miserere. Two manuscript copies belonged to Henry Bury, of Bury, Lancashire, who bequeathed them to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, with the request that they be ‘kept or published in print for the credit of Englishmen and for the better preserving and continueing of that wonderful work’. In the Cambridge copy (...

Article

Watkins Shaw

revised by H. Diack Johnstone

(d London, Oct 29, 1721). English composer. On 17 July 1713 he took the Oxford degree of BMus along with John Isham. Both appear to have been subordinate colleagues of William Croft, who, together with Pepusch, took his doctorate a week earlier. Having been a supernumerary Gentleman of the Chapel Royal since January 1712, Morley was formally sworn in on 8 August 1715, when, with royal approval, another four singers were added to the establishment. He is remembered because of the faint interest attaching to his putative authorship of an early instance of the Anglican double chant. Boyce's Cathedral Music (1760–73; ii, 306) includes an anonymous double chant in D minor, which Joseph Warren in his edition of Boyce (1849; iii, 471) attributed to William Morley without naming his authority and with an inaccurate biographical note (ibid., 31). The source of the chant given by Boyce has not been discovered; it appeared in ...

Article

John M. Ward

revised by Andrew Ashbee

(d July 7, 1545). English musician, actor and businessman. By 1506 he was a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal and was listed among the Fraternity of St Nicholas, London. In 1523 he succeeded William Cornysh (ii) as Master of the Children of the Chapel, a post he held for 22 years. There is no evidence that he composed. While he was a member of the chapel he was much concerned with theatrical presentations. During the early years of Henry VIII’s reign he was one of the chief actors in many pageants and disguisings, including The Golldyn Arber (1511), Le fortresse dangerus (1512) and the Pavyllon un the plas parlos (1514). Later, after his appointment as Master of the Children, Crane and his charges were regularly rewarded for playing before the king each Christmas season. Whether Crane, like Cornysh, composed any of the material performed by the children is not known....

Article

Ian Spink

(b ?mid-17th century; d London, July 14, 1719). English countertenor and composer of French birth. He is described as a French Protestant in his letters of denization (22 July 1682). He was appointed to the ‘King's Vocall Musick’ and made ‘composer in his Majesty’s private musick in ordinary’ in 1689. However, he is listed as one of the vocal musicians who remained in England with Queen Mary when William III went to Holland in 1691. Although he had sung with the Chapel Royal at the coronation in 1689, and had been ‘extraordinary’ since 1690, it was not until 1695 that he obtained a full place in the Chapel – the one vacated by Henry Purcell on his death. He sang solos in most of Purcell's court odes from 1690 onwards, as well as in Hail! bright Cecilia (1692). He again sang at the coronation of Queen Anne in ...

Article

H. Diack Johnstone

[Dean]

There were at least four musicians of this name active in England in the first half of the 18th century. Two were based in London, where, on 18 April 1707, at a benefit concert held in York Buildings for Thomas Deane jr., his father played ‘a Solo of the famous Archangelo Corelli’, one of the first public performances by an English violinist of any of the op.5 sonatas. Thomas Deane sr, a member of the opera house orchestra in 1707–8, may well have been a son of (or otherwise related to) Richard Deane, who was appointed one of the royal trumpeters in 1660. Court records of the period also mention a Gervase Deane, who died as a Chapel Royal chorister under Blow in 1708. Thomas Deane jr, generally billed as an archlute player, also sang and composed, and the ‘Allmand by Mr Dean’ to be found in The Second Part of the Division Violin...

Article

John Caldwell

revised by Roger Bray

(b c1475; d London, April 3, 1523). English or Welsh priest and composer. On 4 January 1499 he requested an allowance from the monastery of Thetford, which passed to William Cornysh upon his death. He was a priest in the Chapel Royal in 1505, but his permanent career as a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal began only about 1509. His will, dated 18 January 1519, includes bequests to churches in Caerleon and Bristol. He was in France at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520, after which he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He appears to have returned less than a month before his death. Hawkins described him as a bachelor of music, and the inscription below one of the two puzzle canons by him in the Henry VIII manuscript (ed. in MB, xviii, 1962, 2/1969) reads ‘Flude in armonia graduat’; but the year and the university are unknown. Hawkins added that he was buried in the Savoy Chapel and gave the inscription: ‘Johannes Floyd virtutis et religionis cultor’ with the date of death....

Article

Peter Le Huray

revised by John Morehen

(b ?1575–80; d London, November 1643). English composer and singer . The Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal records that on 20 August 1604 he was sworn an extraordinary member of the Chapel Royal, in recognition of his services at ‘the great solemnity of the league of Spain’. He had for some time before this been involved in Chapel Royal business; his name was attached to a meeting of the Gentlemen on 19 May 1603. In 1605 Thomas Woodson sold his place in the choir to ‘Wm. West of Canterbury’, and West’s name thereafter appears regularly in lists of the Chapel Gentlemen up to 1643. On 25 November of that year William Howes succeeded West, ‘tenor deceased’. His extant compositions comprise a verse anthem, Have mercy, Lord, a full anthem, Save me O God, and a full Sharp Service (all GB-Lcm ). Both anthems are incomplete.

AshbeeR, iii, iv, viii...

Article

Peter Le Huray

revised by Andrew Ashbee

(d by Oct 16, 1641). English composer . A minister from Wells, he was admitted Gospeller of the Chapel Royal on 2 November 1613. His signature against a minute of a Chapel Vestry meeting on 19 May 1603 was added at the time of his admission. In 1614 he resigned his place, and on 2 July 1619, with Cuthbert Joyner, Clerk of the Vestry, a ‘Matthew Wight of London’ received a grant of the ‘surveyorship’ of lands belonging to rectories, vicarages and rural prebends in England and Wales. He took the BMus and DMus at Oxford in July 1629. By 22 September 1635 and until at least 20 March 1639 he was vicar-choral at Hereford Cathedral; in 1640 he was at St Nicholas's, Hereford. Catches by ‘Mr White’ are in the first and subsequent editions of John Hilton's Catch that Catch Can (1652). An incomplete anthem by ‘White’, ...

Article

John M. Ward

revised by Andrew Ashbee

(b ?c1510; d after Nov 28, 1563). English organist and (perhaps) composer. According to the parish registers of St Lawrence Jewry he married Elizabeth Newton on 20 October 1538. In 1541 he taught four ‘childer angells’ for one of the pageants produced for the Midsummer Watch organized by the Drapers' Guild of London. He was a conduct at St Lawrence Jewry in 1547 and at St Mary-at-Hill in 1550. He may have been the ‘Robt Gowldyn’ allocated livery and named Gentleman of the Chapel at the coronation of Queen Mary in 1553. From c1560 to 1563 he was ‘one of the players of thorgans within the quenes Majesties free chapell within her castell of Wyndesore’. His will (PCC 2 Crymes), dated 28 November 1563, lists properties in London and Eton. He was survived by his wife and two daughters. An In Nomine is ascribed to ‘Mr. Golder’ in John Baldwin's Commonplace-Book (...

Article

Andrew Ashbee

[Harden, Jeames]

(b c1550; bur. Isleworth, Jan 28, 1626). English flautist and composer of French extraction. He was appointed flautist at the English court on 22 May 1575, holding the post until his death. His son Edward was also a court musician. In the 1590s the family moved from Holy Trinity Minories (where James was at one time churchwarden) to Isleworth.

The few compositions by Harding that survive show him to have been a competent composer. Two sturdy fantasias for keyboard (ed. in MB xlv, 1979–88; lv, 1989) probably originated as consort pieces. Undoubtedly his most popular work was the five-part galliard, which Byrd arranged for keyboard (Cfm, Fitzwilliam Virginal Book no.122) and which is found in several manuscript sources. A mutilated arrangement of it was published in Zacharias Füllsack's Ausserlesener Paduanen und Galliarden erster Theil (RISM 160728). His other surviving compositions are a six-part almain for wind (...