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José Quitin

(b ?Liège, c1630; d Huy, April 23, 1712). Flemish composer. He is first heard of in January 1649 and October 1651 at the Carmelite monastery at Liège, where he was a lay brother. An entry for 8 May 1659 in the monastery accounts records that he was one of nine brothers from there who had completed their novitiates at the monastery at Reims; in any religious context he henceforth called himself ‘Frère Lambert de St Théodore’. This important document leads one to suppose that he was born about 1630 and proves that he was a native of the diocese of Liège. It possibly explains too the French style of his music at a time when musicians at Liège were clearly orientated towards the modern Italian style. He is not heard of again until 10 February 1674, when he was nominated rector of the tiny parish of St Martin at Huy. On ...

Article

(b Liège, June 2, 1715; d Liège, Oct 27, 1781). Flemish composer and violinist. From 1723 to 1730 he was a choirboy at the collegiate church of St Martin, Liège. It was probably Hubert Renotte, choirmaster at the collegiate church from 1730, who drew the chapter's attention to the young man's abilities. Delange was given permission to attend the Jesuit college, where he completed his classical education in 1738. There he studied the violin, probably with Joseph Clément, first violin of the choir school, and had harmony lessons with Jacques-Georges Lelarge, organist at the collegiate church from 1734. In exchange, and according to the custom, he continued to take part intoning psalms and playing in the orchestra. He seems to have left Liège in 1740 with a scholarship from the Darchis Foundation. His name only appears in the lists of the Collège liégeois de Rome for the year ...

Article

José Quitin

(b Liège, Feb 12, 1656; d Liège, c1740). French organist and composer. He was organist of the collegiate church of St Jean l'Evangéliste in Liège at least from 1687 to 1704 (the registers preceding and following these dates are missing); from 1703 he was assisted by a young organist, Jean Buston (d 1731). The Babou recorded as organist in the accounts from 1726 to 1767 is his son Jean-François-Pascal (b Liège, 10 April 1700; d Liège, 13 May 1767), who was a notary from 1726 and secretary to the chapter of St Jean from 1742; he was probably the copyist of a Livre d'orgue at the Liège Conservatory containing several pieces attributed to ‘Mr. Babou’, dated 1709 and 1710, which must be by his father. The pieces (ed. P. Froidebise, Schola Cantorum, Paris, 1959) are in a lively and brilliant italianate manner with little counterpoint, and show the introduction of a secular style into church music....

Article

Lawrence Gushee

[Rupertus Tuitiensis]

(b ?Liège, 1075–80; d Deutz, nr Cologne, March 4, 1129/30). Theologian, liturgist and hymnodist. He was an oblate of the Benedictine abbey of St Laurent in Liège and was educated there under Abbot Berengar (d 1115). His teacher in music may have been a certain Heribrand. Ordained priest in 1106, he moved to the abbey of St Michael in Siegburg about 1116 and in 1120 was made abbot of St Heribert in Deutz. His most widely distributed work, to judge from the large number of extant manuscripts, is De divinis officiis; it is on the liturgy and contains a number of observations on plainchant. His copious theological writings involved him in disputes with Anselm of Laon and William of Champeaux. One of them, De Trinitate, in the section De operibus Spiritus Sancti (vol.vii, chap. 16), contains a passage on music of a certain originality, finding in Old Testament citations evidence of the musical proportions usually associated with Pythagoras. There are, in addition, a number of exegetical works; a chronicle of the abbey of St Laurent formerly ascribed to Rupert is no longer considered authentic. He is thought to have written in his youth hymns in honour of St Mary Magdalen, St Goar, St Severinus and St Heribert, and Rupert himself refers to his hymn to the Holy Spirit, ...

Article

(b Maastricht, July 2, 1737; d Maastricht, Dec 9, 1827). Dutch composer and violinist. He played first violin at the Maastricht theatre and, according to the archives of St Servatius, Maastricht, was a violinist at that church from 1758. About 1780 he composed an opera, Laure et Pétrarque for the Maastricht theatre. He played in the orchestra of the Liège municipal theatre for four years, returning to Maastricht in 1794. When the chapter of St Servatius was suppressed by the French authorities in 1797 Rouwijzer applied, in vain, to obtain a pension; he later died in poverty. His music is mainly Classical in style, and closer to German than to French music. Some of his works, however, already display Romantic traits.

all MSS; in B-Lc Fonds Terry T293 unless otherwise stated

Article

José Quitin

revised by Henri Vanhulst

(b c1540; d Munich, 1603). Flemish composer, active in Germany. The name suggests that he was a native of Fosses (in the province of Namur), a small town dependent on the principality of Liège. When he copied Guyot’s Te Deum he stated explicitly that he had been his pupil; he may well have studied under him at Liège for Guyot was choirmaster of St Paul there from 1546 to 1554 and of the cathedral from 1558 to 1563. Several musicians with the name ‘de Fossa’ figure in the archives at Liège; none, however, is called Johannes. A Johannes de Fossa is nevertheless mentioned in a letter from Duke Philibert of Savoy dated 12 January 1557. The first precise information known about Fossa is that in 1569 he was appointed second Kapellmeister at the Munich court. In 1571 he became master of the choristers and continued in the service of the Dukes of Bavaria until his death. After the death of Lassus in ...

Article

Hans van Dijk

(b Châtelet, nr Charleroi, bap. Jan 11, 1678; d Maastricht, Jan 9, 1757). Dutch composer and singer. He studied in Liège, where he received major ordination, and his musical career as a singer began in the choir of St Denis there. In 1709 he became a prebend of the Chapter of Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk in Maastricht. His first known compositions date from this year. From 1726 to 28 May 1751 he was cantor unanimi voce there. Trico’s music is strongly influenced by the musical style of the Liègian church composers from the last quarter of the 17th century, characterized by simple, transparent harmony, a preference for homophony and the avoidance of graces. The two pieces (in B-Lc ) which Auda attributed to Trico are, in fact, from the second half of the 18th century and may be by Trico’s nephew, Charles Théodore Trico (fl c1740–69).

all MSS in Maastricht, Municipal Record Office...

Article

José Quitin

(fl 1622–30). Flemish composer and organist. The title-page of his first publication shows that in 1622 he was chaplain and organist of the collegiate church of St Paul, Liège. From 17 October 1623 he held a benefice at Liège Cathedral. On the title-page of his volume of 1626 he is described as chaplain of the cathedral, and he is mentioned in documents in the cathedral archives dated 4 August 1628 and 20 April 1630. He was replaced as beneficiary before 1639. As a composer he is known by two books of motets, Prolusiones musicae, for two to five voices and continuo (Douai, 1622, incomplete), and Tomus secundus Prolusionum musicarum, for three to six voices and continuo (Douai, 1626). They are similar on all counts. Ath was brought up in the polyphonic tradition, but he included continuo parts and made each voice equally important. The motets begin with strict imitation and continue with freer imitative textures. The motifs are generally short, and there are some roulades, often in dotted rhythm. As a disciple of the Jesuits he took special care over the correct accentuation of the words. His works most probably influenced those of Hodemont and the young Du Mont....

Article

Henri Vanhulst

(b Liège, 1718/19; d Liège, Jan 12, 1804). Flemish music engraver and publisher. His publications, only rarely dated, bear the address ‘At Liège, behind St Thomas’. Some editions were engraved by Mlle Jeanne Andrez, his daughter, who continued the business until after 1809. He dealt primarily with instrumental music of the ‘Belgian’ composers of the period, publishing works by H. Renotte, J.-J. Robson, J.-N. Hamal, H.F. Delange, G.G. Kennis, F.-J. de Trazegnies, J.J. Renier, J.-H. Coppenneur and others. He also published music by P.C. von Camerloher and F. Schwindl, as well as Boccherini’s op.4 and Beethoven’s op.46. For vocal music he produced the periodical Echo ou Journal de musique françoise, italienne (1758–73; from 1767 titled Journal vocal composé d’airs, duos, trios, or Journal de musique vocale). Besides these, Andrez published a comedy ‘interspersed with songs’, La chercheuse d’esprit by Du Boulay, and a choral work by d’Herlois, ...

Article

José Quitin

(b c1648; d Liège, July 28, 1722). Flemish composer. He entered the cathedral of St Lambert at Liège as a duodenus, and he spent his life there as musician and priest. On 26 September 1664 he received a bursa toledana – an award that enabled choristers whose voices had broken to continue their studies – and on the same day in 1668 the chapter made him another award so that he could continue his studies at the seminary. The following year he offered the chapter a mass he had composed, and its favourable reception is confirmed by the performances of a simphonia by him at High Mass in the cathedral on two consecutive Sundays in January 1671. The political troubles and wars that racked Liège between 1672 and 1715 also affected the cathedral and probably hindered Lamalle’s output and success. Nonetheless on 30 April 1672 the maître de chant...

Article

Philippe Vendrix

(b Liège, bap. April 15, 1713; d ?Liège, after 1793). Flemish composer and organist. His godfather, Jacques-Georges Schepers, canon of St Paul, entered him as a choirboy at the collegiate church of St Paul, Liège, where he would have been a pupil of Corneille de Tiège. On 4 June 1734 he was appointed organist at St Martin, replacing Henri Plasman and working alongside Hubuert Renotte, the then succentor. On 7 July 1745 he left St Martin to succeed Renotte as organist at St Lambert; his vacant post was then filled by Nicolas-Léonard Pennas. Lelarge was famous not only for his interpretative abilities as an organist, but also as an expert on the instrument and an excellent teacher, as shown by his manuscript tutor Traité d'harmonie par demandes et réponses. On 5 March 1784 he asked to be released from his duties in favour of J.-P.-V. Lhoest. He died towards the end of ...

Article

José Quitin

(fl 1607–29). Flemish composer. He was succentor of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Maastricht, on 27 June 1607 and may have been appointed as early as 30 October 1602. He was dismissed on 19 March 1608 ‘after various remarks and for other reasons’. He may have moved to Ste Gudule, Brussels: certainly a musician of this name was a bassoonist there between ...

Article

(b Liège, c1575; d Liège, Aug 1636). Flemish composer. He studied music at Liège Cathedral where he is listed as a senior duodenus from 1589 to 1593. On 19 May 1595 the chapter awarded him a grant to continue his studies at the Pédagogie du Lys at Leuven University. By 15 October 1610 he was succentor of the collegiate church of St Pierre, Liège, and had become a priest. On 28 February 1612 he became a canon at Liège Cathedral and was promoted to canon of St Materne, Liège, on 16 January 1616. He spent four years adapting melodies for the carillon of the cathedral, and in 1620 he established the plan for the new carillon at the collegiate church of Ste Croix, Liège. On 26 October 1619 he was appointed maître de chant at the cathedral and, as the account books suggest, carried out his duties from the start with great zeal. The musical repertory then ranged from large-scale works in 8, 12 and 16 parts to modern works for one, two or three solo voices and continuo. An orchestra of two cornetts, two bassoons, bass viol and two organs, augmented by violins and lute, was also available. Hodemont was one of those ordered to revise the ...

Article

James Muse Anthony

(b Liège, bap. June 22, 1613; d Liège, Sept 16, 1696). Flemish composer and organist. He was probably trained at the cathedral of St Lambert, Liège; he then entered holy orders and became second organist in 1630. In 1632 he became first organist and the following year served temporarily as maître de chapelle (in place of Léonard de Hodemont, who was his godfather). He was appointed permanently to the post in 1644, and he also held prebends as canon of St Materne and as imperial canon of the cathedral. He retired in 1674.

The ten early motets in the Grand livre de choeur de Saint Lambert, several of them based on Marian antiphons and chants from the liturgy for Corpus Christi, show Pietkin's contrapuntal skill but are close in style to music by his immediate predecessors, much of which is in the same collection. His surviving mature works, two sonatas for four instruments and continuo and the 32 motets for voices and instruments published as op.3, are all in a more modern style, with freer contrapuntal textures, italianate melodic lines, expressive chromaticism, and (in the vocal works) rhythms derived from the declamation of the Latin poetry. Sébastien de Brossard, who owned a copy of the ...

Article

José Quitin

(b Liège, c1558; d Liège, Jan 25, 1634). Flemish composer. He came from a long-established Liège family of churchmen and magistrates. He was a duodenus at Liège Cathedral and was awarded a bursary to assist his studies at Leuven University; this was withdrawn, however, on 31 April 1578. He was probably a succentor at Liège Cathedral, for on 28 July 1581, despite his relative youth, he was one of three candidates recommended by the cantor for the post of singing master. The chapter chose, however, in favour of Henri Jamaer. Raymundi nevertheless remained a succentor there for several years longer, and on 27 July 1588 he provided some compositions for the choir for which he was later paid 30 florins. He was particularly interested in ecclesiastical administration and he rapidly advanced his position in the church, obtaining increasingly remunerative benefices: on 30 March 1601 he was appointed canon of St Materne. A year previously the Liège chapter had decided, though with no great enthusiasm, to undertake the revision of the Liège Breviary. They entrusted this work to Raymundi, but no-one, it seems, was particularly anxious to comply with instructions from Rome, and the work progressed slowly. In ...

Article

Philippe Mercier

revised by Godelieve Spiessens

[Deodatus] (de)

(bap. Liège, March 1, 1703; d Antwerp, Nov 30, 1764). Flemish composer and organist. In 1717 he became a choirboy at Antwerp Cathedral, and was allowed by the Chapter to take harpsichord lessons. On 11 October 1721 he succeeded the deceased organist Jacob La Fosse; in the meantime he had taken minor orders and was ordained priest in 1726. In July that year, after quarrels with the new singing master Willem De Fesch and others, he resigned and left Antwerp. From 23 August 1726 until 6 September 1741 he was organist in the collegiate Pieterskerk in Leuven, where Matthias van den Gheyn was probably his pupil. Meanwhile Raick became a doctor in civil and canon law at Leuven University. In August 1741 he was appointed organist at St Baafs Cathedral in Ghent, and in 1757 he returned to Antwerp Cathedral following the death of the organist Christiaen Balthazar de Trazegnies. He remained there for the rest of his life....

Article

José Quitin

revised by Henri Vanhulst

[Jehan, Jan; Johannes Petit

(b c1510; d Utrecht, Aug 31, 1569). Dutch composer. From 1538 to 1539 (the records from before and after are lost) he was maître de chant of the collegiate church of St Jean l’Evangéliste in Liège, and ‘Petit Jan succentor’ appears in the account books of the collegiate church of St Martin, Liège, for the first time in November 1544. His pupils there included Johannes Mangon and Gerard de Villers. He was appointed maître de chapelle by Georg of Austria, Prince-Bishop of Liège, about 1550. His obligations in this post probably caused him to neglect his duties at St Martin, whose chapter, on 23 November 1554, threatened to dismiss him, but he is still mentioned in the accounts from October 1555 until May 1562. Georg of Austria’s early death in 1557 deprived De Latre of an excellent job and a sympathetic patron to whom he had dedicated his ...

Article

Philippe Vendrix

(b Liège, bap. March 4, 1754; d Liège, Dec 10, 1833). Flemish violinist and composer. He seems to have studied in Liège, and from 1761 to 1763 was a choirboy at the church of St Pierre. He probably remained there until 1765, when he left Liège and went to Italy, no doubt with his friend Henri Hamal. He took lessons from Giornovichi, and probably followed him to Paris: Giornovichi first performed at the Concert Spirituel in 1773, and the Spectacles de Paris for that year mentions, among the four tenor violins of the orchestra, a certain Pieltain resident at the Hôtel de Soubise. From 1778 Pieltain regularly played as a soloist with the Concert Spirituel. He also attracted comment for his brawling lifestyle. On 21 March 1779, Pieltain performed one of his own compositions with the Concert Spirituel. Giornovichi left Paris that year, and Pieltain took his place in the Prince de Guéméné's orchestra. His brother, Jacques-Joseph-Toussaint (bap. ...

Article

Philippe Mercier

[Alexandre]

(b Liège, ?1756; d St Petersburg, 18/Jan 30, 1840). Flemish conductor and composer. In 1776 he was on the staff of the theatre at Maastricht. He directed the orchestra of the Théâtre de la Monnaie in Brussels from 1780, was musical director and conductor of a theatre at Ghent in 1782–3, was in Lyons in 1784 and by January 1786 was conducting in a Liège theatre, where his opera Le nouveau sorcier was given. In 1787–8 he conducted French operas in Amsterdam, and from 1790 to at least 1792 he did the same at La Monnaie. When the French invaded Brussels in 1794 he and his company fled to Hamburg, encountering C.-F.-H. Duquesnoy, with whom he probably collaborated in mounting French operas for émigrés. In 1799 he was engaged to direct the French theatre at the St Petersburg court. This was the beginning of a remarkable career as a conductor and a composer of operas and ballets. Apart from his theatrical post, he conducted the St Petersburg Philharmonic Society (founded in ...

Article

(b Murnau, Aug 9, 1718; d Freising, July 21, 1782). German composer. The fourth of eight children of Joannis and Maria Anna Camerloher, he was the younger brother of the Munich court composer Joseph Anton Camerloher and the elder brother of Johann Gregor Virgilius Camerloher (b Murnau, bap. 17 Nov 1720; d 18 Oct 1785), a cellist at the Munich court from 1747. After schooling in Murnau, he attended the Ritterakademie in Ettal (1730–39). He studied theology at the Wilhelmsgymnasium in Munich from 1739 to 1741 while also participating as a singer in Fastenmeditation performances for the Congregatio Latina BV Mariae; he later composed 17 Fastenmeditationen for the congregation (1748–73). In 1745 Johann Theodor, electoral bishop (later cardinal) of Freising, Regensburg and Liège, appointed Camerloher Kapellmeister to the Freising court; Camerloher was also his director of chamber music in Liège (1753–9...