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Rob Jovanovic

Smashing Pumpkins Rock band. It was formed in Chicago in 1988 by guitarist and vocalist Billy (William Patrick) Corgan ( b Elk Grove Village, IL, 17 March 1967 ) and guitarist James (Yoshinobu) Iha ( b Chicago, IL, 26 March 1968 ), joined soon afterwards by bassist D’Arcy (Elizabeth) Wretzky ( b South Haven, MI, 1 May 1968 ) and drummer Jimmy (James Joseph) Chamberlin ( b Joliet, IL, 10 June 1964 ). Corgan has always been the centerpiece of this band and came up with the name years before he had an actual band to play live under it. The band


Colette Simonot

Banshees, Ice-T, and Nine Inch Nails, as well as comedy and circus acts. Lollapalooza also hosted a craft fair and provided a platform for political and environmental groups. The festival exposed audiences to artists such as the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Smashing Pumpkins, and Green Day. In 1992 , a second stage was added for local and up-and-coming acts and a third was added in 1996. By the late 1990s, alternative rock was on the decline and Lollapalooza along with it. Farrell bowed out in 1996 , while audiences grew disenchanted with the


David Buckley

internet service provider. His cultural significance has been enormous: he appealed to the sexually and emotionally dispossessed and the suburban intellectuals who saw in him the epitome of cool. In the 1990s artists such as Morrissey, Pulp, Blur, and Suede in the UK and the Smashing Pumpkins, Nirvana, Nine Inch Nails, and Madonna in the USA cited Bowie as a major influence. Even the classical composer Philip Glass has written two symphonies for full orchestra (released on Point Music in 1993 and 1997 respectively) based on Bowie’s Low and ‘Heroes’ albums.