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Arnold Whittall

hierarchically structured tonal system of true (Viennese) Classicism, the prefix ‘neo-’ often carries the implication of parody, or distortion, of truly Classical traits. The advent of postmodern sensibilities since the 1970s has made it possible to see neo-classicism not as regressive or nostalgic but as expressing a distinctly contemporary multiplicity of awareness. It is therefore difficult and even artificial to regard neo-classicism and postmodernism as separate except in historical sequence, with the former the preferred term for the period from World War I



Frank W. Holland

. The trademark ‘Pianola’ (registered in the USA, Great Britain, Canada, South Africa, Australia, Japan and other countries) has become widely known and is frequently misapplied to other makes of player pianos. See also Stravinsky, Igor, §5: France: the beginnings of neo-classicism, 1920–25


Anthony D. Rollett

revised by Nicholas Thistlethwaite

and Eric Atkins, and it pioneered the trend among English builders towards neo-classicism. Under the name Grant, Degens & Rippin, the firm was by 1963 building new organs with such features as independent pedal departments and complete choruses. On the instigation of Grant, the partners toured the Continent to see the work of leading continental builders. They were joined in 1965 by Frank Bradbeer, a professional architect, and their style moved from ‘clarified Romantic’ to neo-classical. Their divergence from the English tradition continued with the organ for the


Larisa Georgievna Danko

legacy and correspondence] (Moscow, 1978) ‘Tsikl “Kammermuzik” P. Khindemita’ [Hindemith’s Kammermusik cycle], Paul′ Khindemit , ed. I. Prudnikova (Moscow, 1979), 143–76 Muzïkal′nïy neoklassitsizm: istoricheskiye ocherki [Musical Neo-classisism: historical notes] (Moscow, 1988) Neoklassitsizm v muzïke XX veka [Neo-classicism in 20th-century music] (diss., Moscow Conservatory, 1988) ed.: Stravinskiy, publitsist i sobesednik [Stravinsky, publicist and conversationalist] (Moscow, 1988) [incl. ‘Problemï naslediya Stravinskogo i yego publitsistika’ [Issues on


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

dissertation on Polish neo-classicism in the 20th century. She has taught at the Institute of Musicology at the University of Warsaw since 1959 , becoming assistant professor in 1967 , reader in 1980 , professor in 1990 and full professor in 1991. She was director of the Institute from 1991 to 1996. Helman’s research centres on the music of the 20th century, with a special emphasis on Polish composers such as Szymanowski, Palester and Baird, and composers active outside Poland. She has also addressed issues of European neo-classicism, musical analysis, and


Jann Pasler

Neo-romantic (1) The term is used to refer to the return to emotional expression associated with 19th-century Romanticism. In 1923 Schloezer used it to contrast Schoenberg's expressiveness with Stravinsky's neo-classicism. In works such as Hindemith's Mathis der Maler ( 1934–5 ), ‘neo-romantic’ refers to the composer's return to tonality as a structural and expressive element. In the 1940s, composers such as those of La Jeune France conceptualized their music as neo-romantic to suggest a rupture with modernist tendencies. As Baudrier put it, they wished to ‘create


Raquel Bustos Valderrama

in 1934 her Piano Concerto ( 1933 ) was performed in both Chile and Berlin. In 1936 her Mass for unaccompanied voices won second prize in the International Religious Music Competition in Frankfurt. Her style reflects the interests of her time, in particular expressionism and neo-classicism. In addition to her two Kleine Orchesterstücke ( 1935 ) she wrote many chamber works including two string quartets ( 1940 , 1942 ) and Visiones chilenas for string quartet with percussion. Among her works for solo voice are settings of texts by Pablo Neruda and Paul Verlaine


Xoán M. Carreira

Rico; no works were composed during that time. Immediately after her period of study in Munich her musical style in non-theatrical works, such as the symphonic poem Alma española and the song cycle Tres ayes , changed from German academicism to a national style similar to the neo-classicism of the Republican school of composers. Works ( selective list ) Stage Becqueriana (opera, 1, J. Alvárez Quintero and S. Alvárez Quintero), Madrid, Teatro de la Zarzuela, 9 April 1915 Diana cazadora (sainete, 1, J. Alvárez Quintero


George Leotsakos

Papaioannou ( 1971–84 ). She has devoted herself almost exclusively to the composition of vocal and especially choral music, drawing on her long experience as a member of the Hellenic Radio chorus since its inception in 1978. Her flowing, melodious musical style tends towards neo-classicism, and the formal balance and occasional harmonic boldness evident in her works reflect the shape and character of the poetic texts, several of which she has written herself. Most of her works have been performed at the Mousikos Avgoustos Festival in Heraklion, Crete. Her works include


Andrej Rijavec

revised by Ivan Klemenčič

Boulanger, and he was active in the Groupe de Recherches Musicales with Schaeffer ( 1962–80 ). He lectured on music at Ljubljana University ( 1983–6 ), then at various conservatories in Paris. His early work had elements of late Romanticism and Impressionism, then after drawing on neo-classicism, he moved in the 1960s towards a more radical modernism. The emphasis of his output has moved from electro-acoustic to orchestral, chamber and piano music. Works ( selective list ) Orchestral Sym., 1954 Suite, str, 1955


Henri Vanhulst

1898; d Ixelles, Brussels , Dec 12, 1981 ). Belgian composer and critic. After studying philosophy and law he applied himself to thorough music studies, taking composition lessons with Absil and Souris. If Bertouille’s attachment to traditional forms was reminiscent of neo-classicism, he considered melody as the essential element in music, assigning to it the expression of feeling as its principal objective. Avoiding any aggressivity in the sphere of harmony, he advocated aesthetic ideas opposed to the avant garde. In L’oeuvre d’art he argued that contemporary


Hugh Canning

Geneva, 1983 ), La traviata for Opera North ( 1985 , Leeds), Der Ring des Nibelungen ( 1985–7 , Seattle), Cardillac ( 1988 , Berne), Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg ( 1989 , Seattle) and Parsifal ( 1989 , Berne). His work is notable for its narrative clarity and sober neo-classicism. Bibliography C. Frochaux : ‘Ecrire en Suisse’, L’âge d’ homme (Lausanne, 1973), 36–9 B. Perregaux : ‘De l’usage de 3 notions héritées de Brecht’, Silex 7 (Grenoble, 1978), 121–8 A. Clark : ‘François Rochaix’, OW (1985), no.2, pp.21–3


Igor Vajda

Bratislava ( 1942–9 ), was head of the Košice Opera ( 1949–52 ) and then chief opera conductor in Bratislava from 1953. His two operas are in a neo-romantic style. Martin a slnko (‘Martin and the Sun’; Bratislava, 18 Jan 1975 ), is a children’s opera to a libretto by Alexandra Braxatorisová after Branislav Kriška. The story is based on Slovak folk tales and the music draws inspiration from a number of styles, from Classicism to full-blown, especially Russian, Romanticism, from verismo to expressionism, and includes some symphonic jazz, all against a background of


John C.G. Waterhouse

is highly stylized, and has been aptly compared to that of a picture on an ancient Greek vase. Musically the work (which was composed quickly in summer 1932 ) is too uneven to be representative of Casella’s best: the finest pages are eloquent examples of his personal brand of neo-classicism, but elsewhere echoes of other composers (Stravinsky, Malipiero) sometimes become disconcertingly overt. Nevertheless, because of its simplicity, this has been much the most often performed of Casella’s three operas.



Daniel Heartz

revised by Bruce Alan Brown

one in south Germany and Austria has led to theories that the former yielded to the latter, temporally, producing the sequence Baroque–Rococo–neo-classicism within a few decades around the middle of the century. Hitchcock correctly regarded German Rococo as ‘a sort of enclave in the Late Baroque rather than its successor’. He added that ‘no inexorable stylistic sequence leads from the Baroque, through the Rococo, to the Neoclassic. The major historical break … came not at the beginning but at the end of the Rococo’. The concept of a Rococo in music has never been seriously


James Parsons

Indeed, to associate the rise of the 18th-century lied in the 1740s with the interest shown during the latter part of the century with either real or pseudo-folk poetry and music is to obscure the genre’s allegiance to the burgeoning neo-classical aesthetic that in time would lead to a rejection of the Baroque in favour of musical classicism. As commentators from the 1740s onwards agreed, composers of the lied were to strive toward all things ‘natürlich’ and ‘einfältig’ (natural and artless). Only later, following James Macpherson’s 1760 Ossian ‘translations’ and Bishop


Rreze Kryeziu

gave more than 150 concerts throughout the former Yugoslavia. In 1980 he became conductor of the Kosovo Philharmonic Choir, with whom he regularly performs concerts locally and abroad. He is the founder and director of the ReMusica Festival. His musical language ranges from neo-classicism with extended tonalities to atonality and postmodern. His music is typically scored for traditional instruments, the voice, or electronics. He is also active as a writer, having published in magazines and daily newspapers, in Kosovo and beyond. A large number of his writings


August Corbet

revised by Corneel Mertens and Diana von Volborth-Danys

closer to Richard Strauss and Respighi than to Debussy. An example of this tendency is the symphonic poem Pallieter , while with his James Ensor Suite he was inspired by four works of the Ostend painter to create an Expressionist score. In his later works he turned gradually to neo-classicism. As a conductor he was recognized abroad as well as in Antwerp. Works ( selective list ) Dramatic Shylock (op, after W. Shakespeare); Antwerp, Flemish Opera, 22 Nov 1913 Incidental music Oedipus Rex (Sophocles), 1906 Salome (O. Wilde), 1907 Die


Ivo Medek

composition with Kvapil in Brno at the Conservatory ( 1942–7 ) and Janáček Academy ( 1947–51 ) respectively. He was an assistant at the Academy ( 1953–7 ), secretary of the Czechoslovak Composers' Union ( 1967–9 ) and a professor at the Brno Conservatory ( 1969–77 ). Long influenced by neo-classicism, his work is characterized by diatonic harmony, a strong sense of melody and by poetic expression. He has laid particular emphasis on solo instrumental pieces and on music for children and amateurs. Chamber music is predominant in his output. Works ( selective list


Dieter Lehnhoff

invigorating the development of Guatemalan musical nationalism. His work is often inspired by Guatemalan folk music, also drawing on the literary world of the legendary Mayan past. His style also shows the influence of the European trends of his time, such as Impressionism and neo-classicism. His output includes about two dozen piano works, including collections of pieces and multi-movement compositions. In his three chamber works Castillo experimented with abstract technical and stylistic aspects, but avoided serial technique. His output for the theatre, which includes