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Article

Dieter Härtwig

revised by Christian Ahrens

1731. The development of the piano robbed the pantaleon of its popularity and it eventually disappeared altogether. Even so, in 1727 Hebenstreit took out a royal writ against Gottfried Silbermann in Freiberg for building large numbers of pantaleons, in addition to the ones commissioned by the inventor, and to have the construction of imitations made a criminal offence. Even to his contemporaries, Hebenstreit’s importance as an artist lay almost entirely in his achievements as inventor and player of the pantaleon. The significance of his work as violinist, Kapellmeister

Article

Pantaleon (i) [ pantalon ] A large Dulcimer invented by and named after Pantaleon Hebenstreit ( 1668–1750 ). It had 185 double strings of metal and gut and was capable of flexible dynamic variation. For illustration see Hellendaal, Pieter . See also Hebenstreit, Pantaleon Dulcimer, §5: History to 1800

Article

George J. Buelow

musical education. In 1726 Augustus I (the Strong), Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, ordered him to learn to play Pantaleon Hebenstreit’s invention, the pantaleon, a musical instrument resembling a large, tonally impressive dulcimer, which was a great favourite at the Dresden court. After 1734 Richter replaced Hebenstreit as court pantaleonist. He also became the principal performer on another instrumental novelty created by Hebenstreit, a porcelain glockenspiel. Richter became widely known as an organist and he also wrote instrumental music and operas for

Article

Robert Stevenson

Portuguese composer and pantaleonist . He studied the pantaleon with its inventor, Hebenstreit, counterpoint with Geminiani and with Martini at Bologna, and composition with Hasse at Dresden. During April and May 1752 and September 1757 a ‘Mr Noel(l)’ was listed as a composer and performer on the ‘cymbalo’ at the New Haymarket Theatre in London where, according to Schilling, he became a friend of Handel. In 1765 he was court musician at Brunswick, and in 1766 , according to Pohl, a ‘Noel, Spieler des Pantaleon’ appeared again in London. In 1775 he met C.P.E.

Article

Octavia  

John H. Roberts

previous operas: horns appear in four numbers (their first recorded use at the Hamburg Opera), and one aria calls for five bassoons and continuo. The choral arias ‘Amor, Amor reitzt zum springen’ and ‘Hebet und senket’ are by Pantaleon Hebenstreit ( 1667–1750 ), presumably survivals from a first version of Octavia planned for Weissenfels, where Hebenstreit was dancing-master. Handel later borrowed extensively from Keiser’s score.

Article

Edwin M. Ripin

revised by John Koster

Pantalon stop (Ger. Pantalonzug , Pantaleonzug , Cälestin , Cölestin ) A device occasionally applied to unfretted clavichords in Germany and Scandinavia from about 1725 to 1800. It was named after the pantaleon or pantalon, a large dulcimer invented by Pantaleon Hebenstreit ( 1667–1750 ), the tone of which was characterized by the resonance of undamped strings. The pantalon stop consists of a series of tangent-like brass blades set in a movable bar so that all of them can be raised at once by the action of a stop-knob. When raised, these blades touch

Article

Rudolf Schnitzler

revised by Herbert Seifert

Vienna , c 1702; d Vienna , March 20, 1763 ). Austrian composer. The earliest known reference to him is a recommendation by J.J. Fux, dated 4 January 1724; according to Fux’s testimony, he had been sent by Charles VI to Dresden to study the cimbalom (or pantaleon) with Pantaleon Hebenstreit ( 1667–1750 ) for about five years, returning to Vienna in 1723. Fux stated that Hellmann’s virtuosity on this instrument equalled if not surpassed that of his teacher, suggesting his appointment as court cimbalist at a salary of 1000 florins. The request was granted

Article

George J. Buelow

Kapellmeister to the court at Darmstadt, Grünewald was employed at the same court as vice-Kapellmeister from about 1713 , a position he retained for the rest of his life. In 1717 he toured parts of Germany, including Hamburg, as a soloist on the pantaleon, the dulcimer-like instrument invented and popularized by Pantaleon Hebenstreit. The close friendship with Graupner is testified to by the fact that five of Grünewald's ten children had the Graupners as godparents. Noack conjectured that Graupner wrote the leading role in his opera Costanza vince l'inganno for Grünewald

Article

Dieter Härtwig

revised by Annegret Rosenmüller

Binder, Christlieb Siegmund ( b Dresden , bap. July 29, 1723; d Dresden , Jan 1, 1789 ). German composer. The son of an oboist, he probably received music instruction as a Dresden choirboy from Pantaleon Hebenstreit, to whom he was referred by the court in 1742 to learn his teacher’s dulcimer-like invention, the pantaleon. It was as a pantaleonist that he became a court musician in 1751 , but he also performed as a harpsichordist. In 1764 he became second organist to Peter August in the court’s Catholic chapel, and he was first organist

Article

George J. Buelow

While retaining his position in Breslau he also became Kapellmeister at the court of Oels. At 26 he moved to Warsaw as court composer and harpsichordist to Count Brühl, first minister to the Saxon court. At his employer's request he learnt to play the pantaleon from the inventor of the instrument, Pantaleon Hebenstreit, a popular figure at the Dresden court. After 12 years in the service of Count Brühl at Dresden, Gebel became leader and, in 1750 , Kapellmeister at the Rudolstadt court. Works Partita (G), kbd (Rudolstadt, n.d.)

Article

Horst Seeger

Hofoper composer from 1715 to 1729 , operas were often imported from neighbouring Leipzig and performed in part by university students, including works by N.A. Strungk, Keiser, Heinichen and Telemann. Directors of the court orchestra included Johann Beer ( 1686–1700 ), Pantaleon Hebenstreit ( c 1698–1707 ) and Johann Georg Linike ( 1711–21 ). Other significant musicians active in Weissenfels at this time were Christian Edelmann (court organist, 1685–91 ), Wilhelm C. Schieferdecker (town organist, 1701–11 ) and Johann C. Schieferdecker (court Kantor, 1720–40

Article

Adrienne Simpson

revised by Tim Crawford

for French music, especially that of Lully, and also for the music of Fux. He played the lute and violin in concerts at his palace in Prague. At the height of his fame ( 1696–7 ) he travelled in the German lands and engaged in a friendly musical competition in Leipzig with Pantaleon Hebenstreit and the Thomaskantor Johann Kuhnau, who subsequently dedicated to Losy his Frische Clavier Früchte ( 1696 ). Losy's son Adam Philipp ( 1705–81 ), who lived in Vienna and became music director to the imperial court, was a competent double bass player in aristocratic orchestras

Article

Elisabeth Noack

revised by Steffen Voss

oratorio La Resurrezione. After a short spell in Darmstadt, where J.C. Graupner had recently taken charge of the musical establishment, Hesse undertook further journeys between September 1709 and the beginning of 1710 , visiting Dresden and Vienna, where he played with Pantaleon Hebenstreit before Emperor Joseph I and was highly praised. He declined invitations to profitable appointments but then secured a good permanent position in Darmstadt as from 1 June 1710. In 1713 , soon after the death of his wife (by whom he had six children), he married the well-known

Article

Edwin M. Ripin

Hähnel of Meissen equipped his instruments with a device for silencing the strings on either side of the tangents if desired, and also a Pantalon stop , equivalent musically to a damper-lifting stop. During a lawsuit brought by Silbermann against Hähnel for patent infringement, Pantaleon Hebenstreit testified that in the 1690s the Dresden organ builder Johann Heinrich Gräbner the Elder had made instruments which incorporated the same principle as the cembal d’amour. Several modern makers, including Hugh Gough, have made reconstructions based on 18th-century descriptions

Article

Dieter Härtwig

1717 , when he gave that task to J.D. Heinichen. During Schmidt’s term as director the Dresden orchestra became one of the most renowned in Europe owing to its many distinguished players, who around 1719 included J.B. Volumier, J.G. Pisendel, F.M. Veracini, Christoph Pezold, Pantaleon Hebenstreit, S.L. Weiss, J.D. Zelenka, P.G. Buffardin and J.C. Richter. In 1719 Schmidt, who had been made Oberkapellmeister in 1717 , wrote a French divertissement Les quatre saisons in a sequence of recitatives, arias, concerted numbers and choruses, suited to the talents of the

Article

David Kettlewell

it as from any other instrument and that it was suitable for all sorts of songs, for teaching singing, for just intonation and so on. In 1704 Pantaleon Hebenstreit brought a large version of the dulcimer to Louis XIV, who is said to have decreed that the instrument should share the name ‘pantaleon’ ( see Pantaleon ). In the later 18th century a number of pantaleon virtuosos travelled about Europe, notably Hebenstreit’s pupil Georg Noëlli, who played in Sweden, England, Italy and other countries. Italian composers including Jommelli, Carlo Monza and Chiesa wrote

Article

Marc Schaefer, Frank-Harald Gress, and Philippe Fritsch

d’amour (although no surviving instrument has yet been found), for which he obtained a royal patent from Augustus the Strong in 1723. Adlung, however, claimed that its inventor was in fact the ‘berühmte Herr Silbermann aus Strassburg’ ( 1768 ). Gottfried also built all of Hebenstreit's pantaleons, until they quarelled in 1727. Whereas the organs are recognizable as products of either the Strasbourg or the Freiberg workshop, many of the string keyboard instruments are neither signed nor dated, and they all share the same stylistic origin. There are enough instruments

Article

Christoph Wolff and Peter Wollny

his name. He probably played J.S. Bach’s Prelude and Fugue in G bwv 541 in the competition for this post. Christoph Schaffrath and Johann Christian Stoy were the other two short-listed candidates. Documents pertaining to the competition state that the deputy Kapellmeister Pantaleon Hebenstreit, who had been invited to adjudicate, praised ‘the skill of the younger Bach … adding that he was the best of these three well-qualified candidates’. Bach took up his duties on 1 August 1733; he was required only to play the organ for divine service and for the figural music

Article

Edwin M. Ripin, Stewart Pollens, Philip R. Belt, Maribel Meisel, Alfons Huber, Michael Cole, Gert Hecher, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, Cynthia Adams Hoover, Cyril Ehrlich, Edwin M. Good, Robert Winter, and J. Bradford Robinson

cleverest Mechanism imaginable’. The maker’s name is not known, but Friedrich Neubauer was advertising such combination instruments in Hamburg in 1754 , as well as clavichords and harpsichords, and hammer-action instruments called Pantelong , evidently inspired by Hebenstreit’s giant dulcimer (known as pantaleon). By 1758 Neubauer had moved to London where he advertised the same instruments, dropping the name ‘Pantelong’ in favour of ‘Piano forte’. Thus hammer instruments of both German and Italian designs were seen in London before 1760. Nevertheless, in an environment

Article

Suite  

David Fuller

than 200 orchestral suites (autobiography), and he had a good deal to say about the origin of these works: he was stimulated by his youthful acquaintance with Handel; he studied the works of Lully and Campra in Sorau, Polish music in Pless, and more of the French style with Pantaleon Hebenstreit in Eisenach. All these ingredients went into the suites, for which his princely employers seem to have had an insatiable appetite. 8. Couperin and the 18th-century French suite. The ensemble suites of François Couperin may be divided into three categories: Les nations , which