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Article

Surnāy  

Christian Poché

revised by Razia Sultanova

prerogative of Baluchis and Africans. The Central Asian sornā/surnāy reveals connections with the maqām system of art music. In western Afghanistan some pieces bear the names of ‘Persian maqām s’ ( maqām-e fārsī ), e.g. Now Rūz Sabā , Now Rūz ‘Arab , Shur , Chahārgāh , Zāoul , Dūgāh Olang and Shahnāz-e Jām. In Uzbekistan some mukom pieces may have originated from surnāy instrumental versions, e.g. Surnāy Manosy , Surnāy Dugohi , Surnāy Munojāty and Surnāy Iroki. Uzbekistan has three different regional schools: Khorezm, Ferghana and Tashkent.

Article

Zurnā  

Zurnā Shawm of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Armenia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Georgia. See Surnāy .

Article

Donāy  

Donāy [ Dūnāy ] Sassanian single reed end-blown double pipe. See Surnāy.

Article

Sornā  

Sornā Shawm of Iran and Afghanistan. See Surnāy . See also Afghanistan, §I, 6(ii): General., Musical instruments., i) Aerophones.

Article

Sahanai  

Mireille Helffer

revised by Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

sahanai ); they are played with circular breathing. Related instruments include the Mvālī of the Kathmandu Valley, the Śahnāī of north India and the Chinese Suona. (C. Tingey: Auspicious Music in a Changing Society: the Damāi Musicians of Nepal , New Delhi, 1994 ) See also Surnāy.

Article

Elbasan  

Mikaela Minga

Ottoman rule ( 1466 to the early 1900s) it developed into an important imperial centre. Imperial culture shaped musical life on all levels of Ottoman society. Professional musicians of mostly Rom origins entertained audiences in public performances with daulle ( davul ) and zurna ( surnäy ) from 1606. Beginning in the 18th century, the Bektashi Sufi order had a particular role in Elbasan’s musical life. Bektashi hymns ( ilahi, nefes ) and love songs were performed by ashik bards. Singing and playing music for self-amusement was popular among the Christian community

Article

Mireille Helffer

according to the importance of each monastery, consists of pieces with names reflecting the circumstances of their composition, technical points, ritual functions, etc. They play alone or with an instrumental ensemble accompanying Tibetan Buddhist rituals. See also Suona and Surnāy. Bibliography P. Crossley-Holland : ‘ rGya-gling Hymns of the Karma-Kagyu: the Rhythmitonal Architecture of some Tibetan Instrumental Airs’, Selected Reports , 1 (1970), 79–114 I. Vandor : Bouddhisme tibétain (Paris, 1976) M. Helffer : Mchod-rol.

Article

Christian Poché and John M. Schechter

in Iberia, eastern and south-eastern Europe, North Africa and Latin America for an aerophone, usually an oboe or a bagpipe. This article outlines the etymological background of the term and discusses the instruments of Iberia and Latin America. For North African instruments see Surnāy , essentially the same instrument; for West African instruments see Algaita. Most instruments to which the term is applied are oboes or shawms; the south-east European gajde or gadjy is a Bagpipe (see §7(iv, v)). The term, which is variously spelt ( gaida , gajde , gajdë

Article

Ṭabl  

Michael Pirker

are still in use. The cylindrical drum is central to Islamic musical cultures; it is used in military bands and is also played at village ceremonies such as weddings, circumcisions and funerals and on religious occasions. During Ramadan, the month of fasting, the drum and zurna ( surnāy ) signal the time when a meal can still be eaten before sunrise. In Islamic countries the cylindrical drum is often played with the shawm in rural music and in military bands; trumpets, kettledrums and cymbals may be added to create larger ensembles. The body of the ṭabl is a wooden

Article

Kashmir  

Józef Pacholczyk

) of the same name. However, the principal architecture of the suite is shared with several traditions of the Islamic Middle East, and Central Asia places ṣūfyāna mūsīqī firmly within that cultural area. (ii) The ṣūrnāy ensemble. Instrumental ṣūfyāna maqām s are also played by the traditional ṣūrnāy ensemble. This consists of several ṣūrnāy (oboes, see Śahnāī ), one of them providing a drone, accompanied by a naqqāra (a single kettledrum also named dulas or duśra , see Naqqāra ), a wosūl or a dhol ( see Ḍhol ) and occasionally a pair of

Article

Poul Rovsing Olsen

revised by Ulrich Wegner

the ‘ūd and two drummers with a single-headed vase-shaped drum ( darbukka ) and frame drum with cymbals ( duff ). Ṣawt and basta may also sometimes be played with ṭabl and ṭār drums. In the Gulf, Baluchi people are considered good shawm ( surnāy ) players. As in many other Islamic-influenced areas, the surnāy is mainly used at festive occasions, particularly weddings. It is accompanied by two double-headed drums ( ṭabl ). For the minority groups in the Arabian Gulf region, music is important in preserving social cohesion and group identity. But some of

Article

Alastair Dick

disseminated in India, such as the tumbakī (i.e. dombak: kettledrum) and the bukkā (trumpets). The Sanskrit forms madhukarī etc. are false re-Sanskritizations. After the Turkish conquest of north India from 1192 , the oboe names sūrnāī and śahnāī (related to the Perso-Turkish surnāy and zūrnā ) were used, and in late medieval and early modern vernacular literature the two are often mentioned together (as in the ‘Persian and Indian types’ recorded by Abu’l-Fazl) ( c 1590 ). The pipe of the Indian type was probably wider and longer than that of the Persian, and

Article

Suona  

Alan R. Thrasher

Suona Shawm of the Han Chinese. A transliteration of the Arabic zūrnā or the related Central Asian Surnāy , the Chinese name usually appears as suona or (during the 18th century) suernai. Other historic names include dachui (‘great blow’) and jinkoujiao (‘golden mouth horn’). Contemporary popular names include laba (technically, a long metal horn), haidi (a small suona variant), and many local names. The suona body is usually constructed of a type of redwood or other hardwood, with seven frontal finger-holes and one thumb-hole. Its

Article

Michael Pirker

18th centuries. Such large bands were particularly impressive, with the shrill sound of the wind instruments, the mighty boom of the drums and the metallic clash of cymbals. The standard instruments of the mehter were the zurna ( see Surnāy ) and Davul (cylindrical bass drum). The penetrating, shrill sound of the surnay made it ideal for military music. The davul differed from similar European drums in being struck on one side with a curved stick and on the other with a switch of twigs. The zurna and davul are native to Anatolian folk music. Other

Article

Mizmār  

Christian Poché

growling sound. Similarly, the Afar shepherds of Djibouti punctuate their playing on the obliquely held flute ( fodhin ) with singing. 2. Shawms. In Egypt the mizmār is found in three different sizes, played with cylindrical drums ( ṭabl ). Corresponding to the surnay and zurna , these shawms have a detachable double reed, a pirouette and a flared body carved from apricot wood. In less than a century the shawms have discarded Turkish names probably derived from the Ottoman period. The most important of the group, the smallest, was called goura

Article

Theodore Levin, Razia Sultanova, and F.M. Ashrafi

simpler suite forms consisting solely of instrumental melodies have achieved a canonical status in Uzbekistan and are designated as makom. These include the Khorezm dutār makomlari performed on the dutār , a two-string long-necked lute ( fig.1 ) and the surnāy makomlari , performed on the surnāy , a loud shawm which is similar to the North Indian śahnāī. The description of these suites as makom seems indicative of a desire to endow them with the sense of musical prestige and historical canonicity suggested by the term. Turgun Alimatov

Article

Mark Slobin, Alma Kunanbayeva, Subanaliyev Sagynaly, and Dyikanova Cholpon

horsehair, and the choor , a long, open end-blown flute with three or four finger-holes. The metal jew’s harp ( temir komuz ) is also used. The number of instruments used by the Kyrgyz was formerly expanded by borrowings from the military bands of the nearby Uzbek kingdoms, including the Surnāy (shawm), sarbasnai (an end-blown open flute about 60 cm long with fingerholes and one thumb-hole) and doolbas (small kettledrum). (ii) Music. Kyrgyz instrumental music has a narrative emphasis, in that nearly every piece contains an implied story. This is also true of Kyrgyz

Article

Oboe  

Janet K. Page, Geoffrey Burgess, Bruce Haynes, and Michael Finkelman

one as a drone, a reverse of the usual pattern. The technique of circular breathing is commonly used. The Suona of China, which has a large flaring metal bell, and the European Shawm are descendants of the surnāy (and have related names). The śahnāī of North India resembles the surnāy but is distinct in not having a lip disc. Large oboes of the surnāy type include the Nāgasvaram , a wooden conical oboe of South India about 95 cm in length, with seven finger-holes, played with drums and ottu (a drone oboe with no finger-holes) for festivals, and the rgya-gling

Article

Shawm  

Anthony C. Baines

revised by Martin Kirnbauer

generic term denoting both single-reed and double-reed aerophones, but in organological literature it is applied for the sake of precision to double-reed instruments only, many of whose names are linguistically related to ‘shawm’ (e.g. the Arab zamr , the Turkish zūrnā , the Persian surnāy , the Chinese suona , the Javanese saruni and the Hindu sahanai / sanayi ). This article is concerned with European types (for non-European types, see Oboe, §I, 1 ), primarily with the shawm as the double-reed instrument extensively used in European art music from the 12th century

Article

Oman  

Dieter Christensen

circumcision ceremonies and television entertainment. During weddings and circumcisions, they often appear together with pairs of small cymbals ( ṭūs , sing. ṭasa ). Of the wind instruments, the double clarinet ( jifte ) is specific to the Baluch of the Batina. The oboe ( mizmār or ṣurnāy ) is the essential instrument of the liwā dance and is of the common West Asian type. The jifte and mizmār (which is difficult to play) are both being replaced by the Scottish bagpipe ( qurba ) introduced by military musicians, whose sound quality is perceived as similar. Side-blown