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Article

Ian MacDonald

M. Braun : Love Me Do: the Beatles’ Progress (Harmondsworth, 1962/ R ) B. Epstein with D. Taylor : A Cellarful of Noise (Garden City, NY, 1964, 2/1965) D. Cooke : ‘The Lennon-McCartney Songs’, The Listener (1 Feb 1968) H. Davies : The Beatles: the Authorised Biography (London, 1968, 3/1992) N. Rorem : ‘The Music of the Beatles’, New York Review of Books (18 Jan 1968) P. McCabe and R.D. Schonfield : Apple to the Core: the Unmaking of the Beatles (London, 1972) W. Mellers : Twilight of the Gods: the Beatles in Retrospect (London, 1973)

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Walter Everett

1982) The Beatles: Complete Scores (Chicago, 1993) B. Spizer : Beatles Records on Vee-Jay (New Orleans, 1998) W. Everett : The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver through The Anthology (New York, 1999) The Beatles: Anthology (San Francisco, 2000) B. Spizer : The Beatles’ Story on Capitol Records (New Orleans, 2000) A. Babiuk : Beatles Gear (London, 2001) W. Everett : The Beatles as Musicians: The Quarry Men through Rubber Soul (New York, 2001) D. Pedler : The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles (London, 2003) B. Spizer : The Beatles on Apple

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Beatles fans outside the Plaza Hotel, New York, 1964. Beatles fans outside the Plaza Hotel, New York, 1964. AP Photo

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Ringo Starr with his Ludwig drum kit, rehearsing with The Beatles for The Ed Sullivan Show, 1964. CBS /Landov Ringo Starr with his Ludwig drum kit, rehearsing with The Beatles for The Ed Sullivan Show , 1964. CBS /Landov

Article

Annie Randall

Beatlemania Beatles fans outside the Plaza Hotel, New York, 1964. AP Photo The term refers to the extraordinary zealotry of Beatles fans during the Liverpool band’s first flush of international fame, initially appearing in British newspapers in late 1963 . It was soon adopted in North America as well to refer to fans’ seemingly insatiable desire for Beatles products—records (both 45s and LPs), concert tickets, fan magazines, or objects imprinted with the Beatles’ logo or images of the performers. This

Article

Paul Du Noyer

). English pop and rock singer , guitarist , pianist and songwriter and member of the Beatles, the . He was abandoned as a child by his father and then his mother, and while in his teens began playing the guitar. His first group the Quarry Men co-opted another local boy, Paul McCartney, developed into the Beatles and became the most successful pop act of all time. By temperament their most restless member, Lennon launched his solo career even before the Beatles’ dissolution in 1970 . He met his future wife, the Japanese artist Yoko Ono, in 1966 , at the

Article

Annie J. Randall

beginning with the success of the Beatles’s first North American tour; it makes ironic reference to the invasion of British armies during the American colonists’ War for Independence. Many of the invasion’s four-member male pop ensembles were such Beatles look-alike bands as Herman’s Hermits and the Dave Clark Five with lineups comprising two guitars, bass, and drums. Others, notably the Rolling Stones and the Animals, modeled themselves in opposition to the Beatles, with sounds closer to American rhythm-and-blues than to the Beatles’ dulcet harmonies. Another important

Article

David Gutman

McCartney, Sir ( James ) Paul ( b Liverpool , June 18, 1942 ). English pop singer , songwriter , instrumentalist and composer , member of the Beatles, the . His first major assignment away from the Beatles was the music for the film The Family Way (Decca, 1966 ). His solo album McCartney (Apple, 1970 ) marked the group’s demise, and set a pattern for the future: where even the most celebratory Lennon-McCartney songs had included a sense of loneliness and alienation, McCartney’s 1970s work turned cosily domestic. The amateurish

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Dave Laing

1926 ; d London , 8 March 2016 ). English record producer and composer . He studied the oboe and composition at the GSM from 1946 to 1948 before joining Parlophone Records. There he supervised recordings of comedy material, jazz, and Scottish dance music before signing the Beatles to a recording contract in 1962 . Over the next eight years he played a key role as producer, arranger, and performer in the group’s recording career, notably in providing string arrangements for Eleanor Rigby , Yesterday , and other songs. Martin also produced hit records by other

Article

Pianet  

Hugh Davies

plucked. The Hohner Duo ( 1978 ) combines the Pianet and Clavinet in one instrument that has a single splittable five-octave manual. Although the Pianet was intended for home use, many rock groups adopted it, including Led Zeppelin (e.g. in ‘Stairway to Heaven’), the Zombies, and the Beatles (e.g. on the soundtrack for the film Help! ).

Article

Allan F. Moore

imitating the US originals. In Liverpool, Merseybeat was spearheaded by the Beatles, whose early style grafted onto a skiffle base the instrumental and vocal textures, melodic structures, syncopated rhythms and responsorial vocal styles of early rock and roll, the modality and verse–refrain form of Anglo-Celtic folk song, and some ornamental chromaticisms and triadic parallelisms from late 19th-century European harmony. Other leading exponents included Gerry and the Pacemakers and the Searchers. The Beatles’ insistence on writing their own material was a novel redivision of

Article

Capitol  

David Mermelstein

Vincent's Be-Bop-a-Lula ( 1956 ) the label achieved its first rock and roll breakthrough, the start of a period of success that was to reach its peak in the 1960s when Capitol signed the Beach Boys and began its lucrative distribution arrangement with the Beatles. The label was forced to retrench after the Beatles' breakup in 1970 , but such artists as Pink Floyd, Merle Haggard, Glen Campbell, Bob Seger and Anne Murray brought some relief. More recently, the label has found commercial success with artists including Duran Duran, Bonnie Raitt, Garth Brooks and the Beastie

Article

Robert Walser

and mandolin). They are generally credited with having done more than anyone else to establish folk-rock, by mixing their coffee-house folk-musician skills with the impact of British-Invasion rock. They were often described as a fusion of Bob Dylan and the Beatles: they expanded the vocal harmonizing of the Beatles while absorbing other aspects of their sound and rhythm, and many of their biggest hits were cover versions of Dylan's songs. Their music also reflected the eclectic experimentation of the psychedelic era in its imitation of the timbres of Indian music and

Article

Oasis  

David Buckley

single for that year, Whatever , complete with a string section and sing-along chorus, was an artful Beatles pastiche. What's the Story (Morning Glory) ( 1995 ) contained a string of successful UK hits such as Roll with It , and the rock ballads Wonderwall and Don't Look Back in Anger . Be Here Now , the most eagerly anticipated album of the year and an instant UK number one, was similar in style, if with a harder rock edge. Oasis's fusion of 1960s Beatles-inspired melodies, 1970s Slade-influenced glam rock and 1980s Happy Mondays' indie styles has made them

Article

Michael Ethen

1978 ), a live album documenting that venue’s biggest musical event since the Beatles performed there in 1966 . Success in Japan accelerated a commercial breakthrough in America. Highlights of the 1980s include the ballad “The Flame” and the anthem “Mighty Wings,” and experiments with musical form, synthesizers, and music videos. They toured in the 1990s with prominent alternative rock bands they helped to inspire. At some of their concerts in the 21st century they have reproduced the Beatles’ album Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band in its entirety.

Article

Allan F. Moore

style, and a string of mellower songs followed, celebratory of a mythical Englishness treated with a mixture of bleakness and compassion unusual among their generation. Waterloo Sunset was the best of these, which also included Sunny Afternoon , Dead End Street (preceding the Beatles' Penny Lane ) and Autumn Almanac . The 1968 album Village Green Preservation Society (Pye) followed this theme and was one of the few aesthetically successful concept albums. By this time, however, fashion had begun to pass them by. Three further songs, including Lola , made

Article

Vesna Mikić

became a star. His first album, Muzika za igru (Music for dance) was the first vinyl release of the newly formed PGP RTB publishing house in 1958 . In the early 1960s Marjanović began touring the USSR, performing covers of Italian and French songs, but also those by The Animals, the Beatles, The Mamas and Papas, and Bob Dylan, to Russian audiences. During the 1970s and 1980s he regularly toured the USSR, made appearances at festivals in Yugoslavia, and solo concerts in Belgrade.

Article

Digby Fairweather and Barry Kernfeld

founded the Cana Agency in 1952 , he became less active as a performer from the 1960s, and instead concentrated on his agency’s promotional work (with, most notably, the Beatles and Rolling Stones in their early years). He was occasionally active in other styles, accompanying the songster Josh White ( 1953–5 ), playing country music regularly, and in 1968 recording (on violin) with the Beatles. Fallon’s most important association in the 1970s was with Felix, but in the 1980s and 1990s he worked regularly with Stan Greig, Digby Fairweather ( 1983–5 ), Wally Fawkes

Article

Dave Laing

Meek, Joe [ Robert George ] ( b Newent , April 5, 1929 ; d London , Feb 3, 1967 ). English record producer and composer . Although Joe Meek created some of the more imaginative pop music of the period immediately preceding the Beatles, his principal contribution to the pop music of the 1960s lay in his innovatory studio production techniques. From 1960 he developed the practices of multi-tracking and echo at his small studio in north London. These were used to great effect on such hit recordings as the instrumental Telstar by

Article

“Land of a Thousand Dances,” which was recorded on Eddie Davis’s label Rampart and reached the Top 40 in 1965 . The same song had been recorded by Thee Midniters, another East Los Angeles group, in 1964 . The following year Cannibal and the Headhunters became the opening act for the Beatles’ now-historic second US tour. The Columbia Records subsidiary, Date Records, secured a contract with the group, but another hit record never materialized. Cannibal and the Headhunters are interviewed extensively in John Wilkman’s PBS documentary Chicano Rock! The Sounds of East Los