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Article

Trumpet  

Margaret Sarkissian and Edward H. Tarr

employment as city musicians or, in the case of trumpeters, tower watchmen. Two kinds of ensemble using trumpets came to be differentiated: the shawm-trumpet ensemble (or alta musica , see Alta; the trumpet was later replaced by a trombone) and the trumpet-kettledrum ensemble (the kettledrums appeared towards 1500 ). (Later, in Germany, these two groups developed respectively into the Stadtpfeifer and the courtly trumpet corps.) The shawm-trumpet ensemble first used the trumpet to play a drone bass (for examples of such music from the 13th and 14th centuries see

Article

Trumpet  

Edward H. Tarr

introduced improvements in trumpet design such as an air cushion valve mechanism and seamless-tube leadpipes. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the F. Besson B♭ trumpet was the universal reference model (along with the Conn 22B). Trumpet makers vincent Bach ( 1890–1976 ) and elden Benge ( 1904–60 ) both took it as their point of departure. Bach strove from the outset ( 1924 ) to give his instruments a secure “feel” for each note in the scale. He was also the first to set up a system for duplicating mouthpieces exactly. His trumpets became the reference model

Article

Bass trumpet The bass member of the trumpet family, usually pitched in B♭; see Trumpet.

Article

Dual Trumpet Nickname of Frank Motley.

Article

David K. Rycroft

Post trumpet (Fr. trompette de poste; Ger. Posttrompete; It. tromba di posta ). A trumpet-shaped (or rather, bugle-shaped) Post horn. It was officially adopted for use on mail coaches in northern Germany in 1828 in preference to the traditional circular model, although the latter was again in favour from 1866. The post trumpet was pitched in E♭, as is the Prussian cavalry trumpet, but had a cornet-type mouthpiece. The tubing was usually coiled four times, making the instrument more compact than a cavalry trumpet; in the region between Lübeck and

Article

Andrew Pinnock

Theory (Kensington, NSW, 1986), 119 A. Pinnock : ‘A Wider Role for the Flat Trumpet’, GSJ , 42 (1989), 105–11 D. Rycroft : ‘Flat Trumpet Facts and Figures’, GSJ , 42 (1989), 134–42 C. Steele-Perkins : ‘Practical Observations on Natural, Slide and Flat Trumpets’, GSJ , 42 (1989), 122–7 F. Tomes : ‘Flat Trumpet Experiments’, GSJ , 43 (1990), 164–5 J. Webb : ‘The Flat Trumpet in Perspective’, GSJ , 46 (1993), 154–60 P. Downey : ‘Performing Mr. Purcell's “Exotick” Trumpet Notes’, Performing the Music of Henry Purcell , ed. M. Burden (Oxford, 1996)

Article

Michael Tilmouth

revised by B.A.R. Cooper

bearing titles such as Trumpet Air, Trumpet Minuet, March and so on. Purcell's ‘Trumpet Tune called the Cibell’, ‘Shore's Trumpet’ by Clarke and his ‘Prince of Denmark's March’ (long misattributed to Purcell under the title ‘Trumpet Voluntary’) are perhaps the best known. Many such pieces exist in several versions: for keyboard, for ensemble or as vocal pieces with an added text. Some were clearly composed originally for the trumpet; others are simply modelled on the kind of diatonic writing suited to it and may introduce notes foreign to the trumpet scale without departing

Article

H.G. Farmer

Trumpet-major An officer in the army who has charge of the trumpeters in a regiment of cavalry or, in Great Britain, in the Royal Artillery or Royal Army Service Corps. The name occurs as early as Digges’s Arithmetical Warlike Treatise ( 1590 ), which states that the ‘Trompet Maior’ not only taught the other trumpeters, but also took charge of the enemy’s trumpeters when they came to ‘parley’. Originally the office was considered to be high, but in the 18th century, as with the drum-major, the position was not recognized officially in the British service, and although

Article

Edward H. Tarr

Bach trumpet (Ger. Bachtrompete ) A misnomer still prevalent in German-speaking countries for any high Trumpet used in modern performances of Baroque music. Originally, the term was applied to a straight trumpet in A (a 5th higher than the Baroque trumpet in D and a semitone lower than the modern B♭ trumpet) with two valves; such an instrument was first employed by the Berlin trumpeter Julius Kosleck in September 1884 in Eisenach. He also played it on 21 March 1885 in a historic performance of Bach’s Mass in B minor at the Royal Albert Hall in London

Article

Reine Dahlqvist

also included Haydn’s Trumpet Concerto in E♭, written for Weidinger as early as 1796; the Kozeluch work is less demanding and less chromatic. With Weidinger the keyed trumpet gained considerable success as a solo instrument. It was also used in military music from about 1820 , especially in Austria and Italy, but towards 1840 it was superseded by the valve trumpet. Reconstructions of keyed trumpets have been made since 1971 by the firm of Instrumentenbau Egger (Basle) and distributed by Meinl & Lauber. The tone of the keyed trumpet is softer and less penetrating

Article

Edward H. Tarr

in 1410 , could refer to either the long straight trumpet or perhaps the slide trumpet; ‘trompette saicqueboute’, in Burgundy in 1468 , probably meant a slide trumpet, not yet the trombone; and various scholars including Höfler, Welker and McGee have shown that the brass instrument depicted on the Florentine ‘Adimari wedding chest’ of c 1443–65 can no longer be termed a trombone, as had previously been thought (for illustration see Alta ). By 1422 the trumpet in the alta – perhaps already a slide trumpet – was apparently known at the Burgundian court as the

Article

Sucked trumpet. Trumpet-like instrument played by sucking rather than blowing air through the player’s lips to cause them to vibrate. The instruments vary from animal horns and conical coiled tubes of bark to long wooden tubes, some cylindrical, others expanding similarly to alphorns. The sound is generally quiet, and the pitches are those of the overtone series. Sucked trumpets have been used from Manchuria and Siberia to South America as animal calls and in shamanic rituals; musical performances have also been reported. The term byrgy has been proposed as the

Article

Pocket trumpet Name used by Don Cherry for the pocket cornet he played ( see Cherry, Don(ald Eugene) ); pitched in B♭, the instrument was built in the first half of the century by the French company Besson.

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

Meta-trumpet Acoustic-electronic hybrid instrument. The first meta-trumpet was developed in 1993 for the trumpet player and composer Jonathan Impett at the University of East Anglia Electro-acoustic Music Studios. Designed to enable a closer relationship between performer, instrument, and the composition or improvisation, the meta-trumpet system involves a trumpet fitted with acoustic and motion sensors whose output is converted into MIDI signals, providing data for the associated processing software. The program uses these incoming data along with stored

Article

Nicholas Shackleton

Mock trumpet A term which seems to have been used about 1700 for an undeveloped Chalumeau . The mock trumpet has been confused with the trumpet marine, with which it has no connection. Dart ( GSJ , vi, 1953 , 35–40) described a book of instructions for playing the mock trumpet, as well as a volume of music, A Variety of new Trumpet Tunes Aires Marches and Minuets ( 1698 ) for the instrument. This was clearly the chalumeau before its improvement by Denner; it carried three finger-holes for each hand, one thumb-hole, and had no keys. Such an instrument

Article

Cecil Adkins

a modern brass trumpet shows that the partials of the latter drop off sharply after the 10th or 11th partial. The use of a straight mute, however, heightens the upper partials of the trumpet so that it begins to show the same configurations as the trumpet marine for the first six or seven partials. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification the trumpet marine is a bowed lute (or fiddle). 1. Historical development. The history of the trumpet marine may be divided into two overlapping periods: the first extending from 1450 to 1650 , the second from 1550 until the late

Article

Sarah Deters Richardson

annual International Trumpet Guild Journal. In 1982 , the newsletter was discontinued and replaced by the quarterly ITG Journal. In additional to its scholarly publications, the ITG hosts an annual conference, the first of which was held in Bloomington, Indiana, in 1975 , as well as many competitions and conferences for trumpet players of all levels and interests, including the Carmine Caruso International Jazz Trumpet Solo Competition and the Ellsworth Smith International Trumpet Solo Competition. ITG underwrites scholarly works on the trumpet and sponsors new

Article

David K. Rycroft

Side-blown trumpet (Fr. trompette traversière; Ger. Quertrompete; It. tromba traversa ) Indigenous African trumpet or horn with the mouth-hole (which is often oval or rectangular) at the side of the instrument rather than at the end. They are usually made from an animal horn or an elephant tusk, or are carved from wood; instruments made from gourds, bamboo or metal are more commonly end-blown. Some side-blown specimens have an additional small hole at or near the tip, which may be stopped or unstopped by a finger during performance to vary the pitch

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Trumpet trompette Trompete tromba 4. The Western trumpet.: Ex.1 Trumpet trompette Trompete tromba 4. The Western trumpet.: Ex.1

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Insengo (Twa side-blown trumpet) (ii) Short side-blown bamboo trumpet of the Twa people of Rwanda, used in the amakondera ensemble. A calabash is added to the end of the trumpet as a bell. See Amakondere . (J. Gansemans and B. Schmidt-Wrenger: Zentralafrika , Leipzig, 1986 , 50ff)