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Henry Stobart

and ‘female’ erkes (without drums) to perform melodies, which are sometimes pentatonic. Exceptionally, the smaller ‘female’ size is played by a woman. Secondly, the erke exists as a side-blown trumpet, 2 to 6 metres long, made of cane, with a bell made from the dried skin of a cow's tail, animal horn or metal. It plays impressive fanfare-like figures, rarely moving outside a four-note compass (the major triad and its lower dominant). Performance is usually confined to the dry winter months as its sound is sometimes said to attract frosts. The erke or corneta


Corneta (ii) A term for the Argentine form of the Erke .


John M. Schechter

At the wider end a cow horn is attached with plant fibres or leather as a resonator. Metal instruments, made from gas- or water-pipes, are known among the Mapuche of Lanalhue, Chile. The trutruka is similar in construction to the Argentine Erke , but has a diagonal cut at the tip which serves as a mouthpiece, whereas the erke is side-blown or uses a single reed. It is played, together with other instruments, at the elüwún funeral rite for a shaman, in the ngillatún ceremony when Araucanians meet to supplicate their gods for protection against calamities and



Beryl Kenyon de Pascual and John M. Schechter

clairon it is sometimes applied loosely to the bugle ( corneta ). The instrument is used particularly in cavalry formations to embellish the calls of the trompeta . (2) A valveless trumpet of Oaxaca, Mexico. (3) A side-blown, straight trumpet up to 2 metres long, similar to the Erke , used in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. The Peruvian instrument has a body made of a single piece of bamboo and a calabash or metal bell. Played in open spaces, it is used to animate religious festivals and communal labour (particularly wheat-threshing in Cajamarca). In Chile it joins with


Leon Stefanija

(b Ljubljana, Oct 20, 1954). Slovenian composer . After taking degree in music education at Ljubljana University (1975), he continued to study composition, mostly as a self-taught practitioner. In the 1980s he attended composition courses led by Polish composers Bogusław Schäffer, Krzystof Meyer and Kotoński, and in 1995 he took a higher degree in music education. He has hitherto focussed primarily on vocal (especially choral) genres and on music for theatre and film. His musical idiom encompasses a variety of styles, ranging from folklike melodic expressiveness (as in his earlier choral works) and picturesque tone poems to the new simplicity of works such as Post Art or Look, Wolgang is Writing to You for piano and strings (1991).

(selective list)


Lada Brashovanova

(b Ruse, Sept 23, 1925). Bulgarian folklorist and composer. He graduated in 1952 in both theory and performance at the State Academy of Music in Sofia and worked at the Music Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, as junior research fellow (1953–66) and senior research fellow (1966–89). He received the doctorate at the institute in 1973 with a dissertation on Bulgarian polyphonic folksong; in 1979 he was appointed professor of ethnomusicology at the State Academy of Music and in 1989, senior research fellow at the Institute for Folklore of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. His areas of research include various aspects of Bulgarian and Jewish folk music and he has been a member of the Union of Bulgarian Composers' executive committee since 1965. Much of his work in the 1960s on the folksong from particular regions in Bulgaria was published in Izvestiya na Instituta z muzika...


Alla Vladimirovna Grigor′yeva

(b Moscow, 3/Feb 16, 1910; d Moscow, Dec 25, 1988). Russian composer, pianist and teacher. He graduated from the Moscow Conservatory (1936) having studied composition with Myaskovsky, with whom he remained as a postgraduate. His name is listed on a marble plaque as one of the most talented students of the Conservatory. In his early years, besides composing, Golubev was a choral conductor, pianist and on the editorial board of Muzgiz, the state music publishers. From 1944 to the end of his life he taught composition and polyphony at Moscow Conservatory, becoming a professor in 1947. Among his students were Eshpay, Golovin, Kholminov, Todor Popov and Schnittke.

Golubev's connections with the musical traditions of both Russia and Western Europe determined the aesthetic values of his music. Skill in polyphony, taste and professionalism were important qualities to this composer, for whom classical logic was essential to his musical thinking. In his large-scale forms the composer aimed, by means of architectural proportions and other Beethovenian symphonic principles, to give the maximum prominence to his ideas, incorporating bold strokes, dynamic development of the musical material and dramatic integrity (5th, and 7th symphonies and the piano concertos). His chamber works are characterized by mastery of the technical and expressive possibilities of particular instruments, virtuoso working of the most complex textures, often enriched with polyphonic motifs, and a subtly original harmonic language. His knowledge of folklore – Russian, Ukrainian, and of the peoples of the far north – is evident in the oratorio ...


Gerard Béhague and Irma Ruiz

transcr. I. Ruiz. Pub. in C. Vega: Las canciones folklóricas de la Argentina (Buenos Aires, 1965) Irma Ruiz Tritonic music of different origin is found further north, in pieces for corneta or caña ( erke in Peru), a pre-Hispanic transverse trumpet, used on religious occasions. It is also found in some pieces for Erke or erkencho , a post-Hispanic clarinet, played primarily during Carnival celebrations, the player accompanying himself with the caja . Traces of the pentatonic system of the Incas survive in the Huayno dance played



Juan Orrego-Salas and María Ester Grebe

straight, tubular trumpet with a mouthpiece, played laterally. Its cane tube measures between 1·3 and 1·5 metres in length and it is decorated with multicoloured pieces of wool. It plays tritonic arpeggios, which accompany vocal music, and it shares some characteristics with the Argentine erke and the Mapuche trutuka . The putu is a natural, tubular vertical or lateral trumpet, curved, with or without mouthpiece. Decorated with a cow’s horn, ornamented with balls of multicoloured wool, it emits sustained notes, and is related to the Argentine erkencho , the altiplano


Dorothea Redepenning


(b Sontsovka, Bakhmutsk region, Yekaterinoslav district, Ukraine, 11/April 23, 1891; d Moscow, March 5, 1953). Russian composer and pianist. He began his career as a composer while still a student, and so had a deep investment in Russian Romantic traditions – even if he was pushing those traditions to a point of exacerbation and caricature – before he began to encounter, and contribute to, various kinds of modernism in the second decade of the new century. Like many artists, he left his country directly after the October Revolution; he was the only composer to return, nearly 20 years later. His inner traditionalism, coupled with the neo-classicism he had helped invent, now made it possible for him to play a leading role in Soviet culture, to whose demands for political engagement, utility and simplicity he responded with prodigious creative energy. In his last years, however, official encouragement turned into persecution, and his musical voice understandably faltered....


Bruno Nettl, Victoria Lindsay Levine and Elaine Keillor

§II, 1(i): Traditional music: Local traditions: Amerindian Chunchus-collas Dvořák, Antonín, §6: The American period, 1892–5 Ethnomusicology, §II, 4(i): History to 1945: North America French Guiana, §1: Amerindians Honduras, §II, 1: Traditional and popular musics: Amerindians Erke Lament, §5: The Americas MacDowell, Edward, §3: Orchestral music Maya music Mexico, §II, 3: Traditional music: Indigenous forms Paraguay, §2(i): Traditional and popular music: Indigenous music Suriname, §1: Amerindians Trinidad and Tobago, §1: Amerindian heritage USA, §II, 4:


Sydney Robinson Charles, George R. Hill, Norris L. Stephens and Julie Woodward

Documents, iii ( 1939 , 2/ 1945 / R ) —— Complete Works , ed. L. Schrade, PMFC, iv ( 1958 / R ) Lanier, Nicholas (ii): The Complete Works , ed. G.J. Callon, Boethius Editions, xi ( 1994 ) Lanner, J.: Werke , ed. E. Kremser (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1889–91 / R 1973 as Sämtliche Erke für Klavier ), 8 vols. La Rue, P. de: Opera omnia/Collected Works , ed. N.S. Davison, J.E. Krieder and T.H. Keahey, CMM, xcvii ( 1989 –), 12 vols. planned Lassus, O. de: Sämtliche Werke , ed. F.X. Haberl and A. Sandberger (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1894–1926 / R , rev. 2/