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Article

John Caldwell

often called ‘ricercare’ (see §3), with Bach's two-part inventions. Originally the term ‘ricercare’ was used for a piece of preludial character for lute or keyboard instrument (as in the expression ‘ricercare le corde’, ‘to try out the strings’), giving it a meaning comparable to that of ‘tastar’, ‘tañer’, ‘tiento’ etc. ( see Toccata and Tiento ). The commonest type subsequently was the imitative ricercare, similar in scope to the fantasia and fugue. Some uses appear to combine two different meanings of the word, as, for example, imitative ricercares designed as

Article

Robert L. Marshall

Chorale ricercare A leading early 17th-century organ genre in which each line of a German chorale, emulating the style of the contemporary chorale motet, is presented in fugal imitation, whereupon it may be further embellished with idiomatic keyboard figuration. The principal exponents of the chorale ricercare were Michael Praetorius and Scheidt. It is also referred to as ‘chorale canzona’, ‘chorale motet’ and ‘chorale fantasia’. See Chorale settings .

Article

Robert Stevenson

Recercada (Sp.: ‘study’ , ‘ricercare’ ) A term used in Diego Ortiz's Trattado de glosas ( 1553 ) for 27 pieces of varying intent (the 27th piece is called merely quinta pars ). The first four pieces, for solo bass viol (called alternatively ‘fantasia’ in Ortiz's prefatory dechiaratione ), all end on G and are devoid of any mensuration signs except a single transient 3 . There is no printed harpsichord accompaniment, but an instruction in the dechiaratione specifies that, if any is added, it must display ingenuity in imitating passages in the bass viol

Article

Robert L. Marshall

Chorale motet (ii) An organ chorale written in the style of the chorale motet, i.e. a synonym for Chorale ricercare . See Chorale settings .

Article

Gebundener Stil ( Ger .) A term used to describe 17th- and early 18th-century compositions written in a strict contrapuntal style, such as fugues, ricercares and chorale preludes. See also Strict counterpoint .

Article

H. Colin Slim

only known composition, a ricercare in Musica nova (RISM 1540 ²²; ed. in MRM, i, 1964 ), appears in Musicque de joye ( 1550 24 / R ) attributed to Colin. The six chansons ascribed to ‘Colin’ and published by Attaingnant between 1538 and 1549 are probably by Pierre Colin; nor should he be confused with Germaine Colin, poet and musician in Angers, c 1539 . Not only is Golin's ricercare the longest in Musica nova but also it contains the largest number of points of imitation. Its technique also differs somewhat from the other ricercares: the third and fourth

Article

Pn , N Ricercare del secondo tono, Pn , N Ricercare del seconto tono, Pn , N Ricercare del terzo tono, Pn , N Ricercare del quarto tono, Pn , N Ricercare del duodecimo tono, Pn , N Ricercare sopra Cantai mentre ch'i arsi [di] Cypriano [de Rore], Pn , N Bibliography ApelG Vander StraetenMPB , vi K. Jeppesen , ed.: Die italienische Orgelmusik am Anfang des Cinquecento (Copenhagen, 1943, enlarged 2/1960) A.-M. Bautier-Regnier : ‘Jachet de Mantoue (Jacobus Collebaudi) v. 1500–1559:

Article

H. Colin Slim

published by Arrivabene, Moderne and Kriesstein. His ricercare, in its consistent use of points of imitation, is representative of the new instrumental style found in the pieces of Musica nova (RISM 1540 ). Works Motet, Aufer iram a corde, 4vv, 1539¹¹ 4 chansons Je ne vis onques, 4vv, 1538¹ 7 Je suis bien seur, 4vv, D-Mbs 1503a Je suis tant sien, 4vv, 1538¹ 7 , Mbs 1503a Loyal amant, 4vv, Mbs 1503a Ricercare a 4, ens, 1540²², 1550² 4 / R 1991 ed. MRM

Article

Robert L. Marshall

composed mainly by late 17th-century central German composers, among them Pachelbel and several of Bach’s ancestors, notably Johann Christoph. Their function, like that of the chorale prelude, was to introduce the congregational singing of the chorale. (2) A synonym for Chorale ricercare . See Chorale settings .

Article

Hans Radke

its figure. In common with most Italian lutenists, he indicated use of the right-hand forefinger by a dot beneath the figure. He composed six ricercares and intabulated 19 motets, six madrigals and six chansons, by Arcadelt, Jachet of Mantua, Jacquet de Berchem, Josquin, Lupus, Mouton, Senfl, Verdelot, Willaert, Sandrin and Villiers (the six ricercares and one motet ed. in DTÖ, xxxvii, Jg.xviii/2, 1911 / R ). The ricercares, called Priambeln by Gerle ( 1552 ) and Fantasiae by Phalèse ( 1552 ), are primarily in imitative counterpoint, with interspersed passage-work

Article

Giuseppina La Face

on music , composer and violinist ; he may have been a relation of Gasparo Zanetti. He published a treatise, Consideratione sopra una questione nata, se alcune note poste nella chiave di F.fa ut grave … siano autentiche o placali (Milan, 1680 ), which includes two two-part ricercares using the same subject. His only other known works are three florid solo motets (two in RISM 1681 ¹ and one in 1692 ¹).

Article

intact in a 17th-century tablature. Two other pieces appear in collections of the time. The 12 ricercares in four parts make full use of imitation and other conventional contrapuntal devices; melodic inversion, trills, turns and syncopation occur frequently. The Capricci appeared originally in four partbooks; only the two treble parts now survive. In construction they resemble the ricercares and other canzone alla francese of the time, but in contrast to the ricercares they employ sprightly, brief subjects in short note values. They exhibit most conventional co

Article

H. Colin Slim

Barbara in 1577 . Cavazzoni's four ricercares ( 1543 ) differ strikingly from the pair published in 1523 by his father, Marco Antonio, for they comprise a series of imitative expositions, each having from three to 19 entries, connected by a few free figurative sections. The large number of entries of a single point and also the appearance of an ensuing point as the conclusion of a preceding one suggest that the stylistic model was the vocal music of Gombert's generation. Unlike Cavazzoni's rather austere ensemble ricercares of 1540 (a 4) and 1551 (a 3), those

Article

Rogier Starreveld

revised by Leo Samama

Sonata, 1942 Conc., 1964 Conc., 1967 Suite concertante, org, str, 1976 12 Images; Octo fantasiae; Ricercare Choral Missa ‘Mater Sanctae laetitiae’, female chorus, org, 1948 Missa ‘Sancti Pape Pii Decimi’, chorus, org, 1956, arr. org, 1977 La matinale, chorus, pf, 1962 TeD, Mez, chorus, orch, 1979 Chbr music, songs, works for carillon Principal publisher: Donemus Bibliography P. Visser : ‘Albert de Klerk: Missa “Mater sanctae laetitiae”, Ricercare for Organ’, Sonorum speculum , no.23 (1965), 26–35

Article

Josef-Horst Lederer

pratica as the outcome of the prima pratica . He discussed – with continual references to Merulo – intervals, keys, imitation and composition in two and more parts, including double counterpoint. As practical illustrations the treatise presents two of Angleria’s own ricercares, and some canons and a ricercare by his friend G.P. Cima. Bibliography L. Lucchini : Cenni storici sui più celebri musicisti cremonesi (Casalmaggiore, 1887), 19 R. Monterosso : Musicisti cremonesi (Cremona, 1951) J. Hein : Die Kontrapunktlehre bei den Musik

Article

(much practised in south Germany), with two antiphonal choirs. Works Sacred vocal 2 motets, 8, 10vv, 1615² 1 ed. C.G. Rayner (New York, 1976) Mass, 6vv; Communion for Feast of Corpus Christi, 5vv: A-Sd Keyboard Motet, 1617 24 (org intabulation) 1 ricercare, 2 toccatas, D-Mbs ; 1 ricercare, I-Tn ; ed. in CEKM, xl (1976) Further works, anon. possibly by Hoeven, D-Mbs , ed. in CEKM, xl (1976) I-Tn Bibliography H. Spies : ‘Die Tonkunst in Salzburg in der Regierungszeit des Fürsten und Erzbischofs Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587–1612)’

Article

James Haar

et recerchari a 3 voci , Tiburtino contributed a fantasia and 12 ricercares, textless but described as ‘suitable for singing or playing on any sort of instrument’. The volume also contains a few madrigals by Willaert, Rore and others, as well as a group of ricercares by Willaert. Willaert's ricercares were reprinted several times in Fantasie, Recercari Contrapunti (Venice, 1551 , 3/ 1593 ), a collection similar in title to the 1549 print but omitting Tiburtino's pieces. Tiburtino's ricercares are unlike those of Willaert and are closer in style and technique

Article

H. Colin Slim

revised by Kimberly Marshall

surviving keyboard ricercare presents an impression of massiveness and solidity unique among Italian ricercares. Jeppesen rightly noted its ‘proud and uplifting mien’. Works 13 ricercares, insts, 1540²² (11 repr. in 1550 24 / R ), ed. in MRM, i (1964) 1 intabulated for lute, 1546 25 , ed. in MRM, i; 3 intabulated kbd, Venegas de Henestrosa, Libro de cifra nueva (Alcalá, 1557), ed. in MME, ii (1944) 1 in score, P-Cug , ed. in PM, xix (1969), 123, no.28 1 kbd ricercare, I-CARcc , ed. in CMI, i (1941), and Jeppesen 12 lute ricercares (?all arrs.), 1546

Article

H. Colin Slim

printed for him by Bernardo Vercelensis and containing two ricercares and intabulations of two motets and four chansons. Since no vocal models have been located, Cavazzoni may well have arranged his own vocal compositions for organ. The two ricercares, though modally connected, are thematically only loosely related to their ensuing motets. Both ricercares, the earliest known for keyboard, are astonishingly mature compared with the first lute ricercares that Petrucci printed 15 years earlier. Although the two ricercares still bear the stamp of written-down improvisations,

Article

Klaus Speer

revised by Kimberly Marshall

francese feature florid ornamentation with trills and rapid scale passages in both hands; this type of decoration also characterizes Bertoldo's two toccatas. The ricercares on the first and third tone are excerpted from ensemble pieces by Annibale Padovano, with ornaments added in the soprano and tenor parts, while the ricercare on the sixth tone appears to be an early example of monothematic ricercare. Works Il primo libro di madrigali, 5vv … con un'echo, 6vv, et un dialogo, 8vv (Venice, 1561) Il secondo libro di madrigali, 5vv (Venice, 1562)