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John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham, and David Hiley

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3. Sources. See Plainchant

Article

Sources, manuscript  

Stanley Boorman, John A. Emerson, David Hiley, David Fallows, Thomas B. Payne, Elizabeth Aubrey, Lorenz Welker, Manuel Pedro Ferreira, Ernest H. Sanders, Peter M. Lefferts, Ursula Günther, Gilbert Reaney, Kurt von Fischer, Gianluca D’Agostino, Charles Hamm, Jerry Call, and Herbert Kellman

nature of MS sources and their significance for present-day musical research, followed by a series of entries that review the character and repertory of the main classes of MS in use before 1600. These are arranged by subject matter and also chronologically. Three further categories are discussed in adjacent articles: Sources of instrumental ensemble music to 1630 , Sources of keyboard music to 1660 and Sources of lute music; see also Printing and publishing of music. Introduction to manuscript sources Sources, manuscript: Western plainchant Sources, manuscript:

Article

Répertoire International des Sources Musicales  

Rita Benton

revised by Jennifer A. Ward

Répertoire International des Sources Musicales [ RISM; International Inventory of Musical Sources; Internationales Quellenlexikon der Musik ] An international project to document the locations of musical sources worldwide. The inventory, generally known as RISM from its French title, is jointly sponsored by the International Musicological Society and the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres. RISM was founded in 1952 and was the first of such cooperative international music bibliography projects, joined

Article

24. Sources and editions. See Handel [Händel, Hendel], George Frideric

Article

Introduction to manuscript sources  

Stanley Boorman

change can be found in Italian sources, after the mid-century Rossi Codex, and then with increasing frequency. Since these sources supply attributions to earlier composers, it appears that the transition in a composer’s status had occurred around the middle of the century ( see Sources, manuscript: Italian polyphony, c1325–c1420 ). A similar change can be seen in French sources of the end of the century, with the interesting additional point that many polyphonic settings of liturgical texts also carry composers’ names ( see Sources, manuscript: French polyphony

Article

Sources, manuscript: Early motet  

Ernest H. Sanders and Peter M. Lefferts

Sources, manuscript: Early motet See also Sources, manuscript I. General. The most important genre of polyphonic music of the 13th century in France was the Motet , which increasingly overshadowed the older and declining genres of organum, troped organum, conductus and clausula. Most of the major late 13th-century sources of French polyphony, therefore, contain mainly motets. The chief sources in the early layer of MSS preserving motets (those whose notation has no discrete form for a single semibreve) are: F-CSM 3.J.250; GB-Lbl Eg.2615 (2); D-W

Article

Sources, manuscript: Renaissance polyphony  

Charles Hamm, Jerry Call, Stanley Boorman, and Herbert Kellman

editions of music from this period are based on printed sources only, often with no attempt made to examine MS sources and collate them with the printed versions. Some editors have assumed that printed sources are superior to MS sources. But recent comparative studies suggest that MS sources from the first half of the 16th century are often superior to printed ones in many details – the actual reading of notes, placement of text, ligatures etc. This raises the question of the relationship between MS and printed sources of the 16th century, a question which can best be discussed

Article

Sources, manuscript: Secular monophony  

David Fallows, Thomas B. Payne, Elizabeth Aubrey, Lorenz Welker, and Manuel Pedro Ferreira

, the carefully consistent calligraphy and illuminations of the trouvère sources, or the textbook format of the cantiga and lauda sources. Yet throughout these sources musical inconsistency is the rule and it marks a substantial rift in manner between the secular and the sacred. The liturgical music of these centuries is consciously preserved in manuscripts whose textual agreement shows a reverential concern for the authority of the parent sources. If a trouvère song survives in ten sources, however, there is very little likelihood of their all transmitting the same

Article

Sources of lute music  

Arthur J. Ness and C.A. Kolczynski

Sources of lute music This is one of a group of articles that give an outline of the spread of music and the range of sources before c 1600. While the bulk of music throughout the period is vocal (as far as is known) and is discussed in the article Sources, MS , there are still some repertories that were always distinct. The sources of lute music are perhaps the clearest to distinguish for, with few exceptions, they were written in a special range of notations that did not use the staff. The terminal date adopted here is later than that for other articles

Article

Sources, manuscript: Western plainchant  

John A. Emerson and David Hiley

Sources, manuscript: Western plainchant See also Sources, manuscript I. General. The earliest plainchant sources containing a substantial number of notated melodies, such as CH-SGs 359, F-LA 239, CHRm 47 and Pn lat.1154 and 1240 , are usually dated from the end of the 9th century to about 925. Beyond this, only a few scattered texts accompanied with neumes can be dated with relative certainty before the year 890. Distribution of the 10th- and 11th-century plainchant sources throughout medieval Europe follows a general pattern. These fragile books

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3. 15th-century English sources. See Sources, MS §IX 3.

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Sources, manuscript: English polyphony, 1270–1400  

Ernest H. Sanders and Peter M. Lefferts

many of the sources specimens of several of these categories are found without strict separation from one another. This applies primarily to the so-called Worcester Fragments ( see Sources, manuscript: Western plainchant ) as well as to lesser sources, such as GB-Ob CCC497 (two scribes), F-Pn fr.25408, GB-Ob Mus.c.60, and US-Cu 654 App. Some of the sources that preserve only one category are GB-Ob Bodley 257, Owc , Ob CCC489, Ob Wood 591 (category a ); Ctc 0.2.1 (category e ). Of course, in view of the fragmentary condition of the sources there are

Article

Sources, manuscript: French polyphony, 1300–1420  

Ursula Günther and Gilbert Reaney

the Czech Republic. Inventories and descriptions of nearly all these sources are in RISM, B/IV/1–2 (with supplement) and B/IV/3–4, and additional information concerning the early 15th century can be found in the Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music, 1400–1550 , ed. C. Hamm and H. Kellman, RMS, i ( 1979–88 ). The principal sources were known to Ludwig and Besseler. Whereas the Italian sources of the period have their contents arranged in order of composers, the French sources are predominantly categorized by forms, although this order often tends

Article

Sources, manuscript: Organum and discant  

David Hiley

and ‘sancto’) is perhaps indicative of one role of clausula and motet in Parisian sources. Fragmentary 11th-century sources of liturgical polyphony, such as the Chartres group ( F-CHRm 4, 109, 130) and the Fleury group ( I-Rvat Ottob.lat.3025, Reg.lat.586, 592), are not described here; although interesting evidence of the early cultivation of polyphony, they are individually very modest in scope (see Gushee, 1965 and Arlt, 1993 ). Sources in §III (and F-Pn lat.1139, in Sources, manuscript: Western plainchant, §V. ) may be considered as a group because of a

Article

Sources of keyboard music to 1660  

John Caldwell

Formats at the Keyboard: a Study of Printed Sources of Keyboard Music in Spain and Italy c.1500–1700, Selected Manuscript Sources Including Music Writings by Claudio Merulo, and Contemporary Writings Concerning Notations (diss., U. of Oxford, 1988) C. Bailey : English Keyboard Music, c1625–1680 (diss., Duke U., 1992) V. Brookes : British Keyboard Music to c.1660: Sources and Thematic Index (Oxford, 1996) For further bibliography see also Keyboard music, §I. 2. Principal individual sources. (i) Italy. manuscript sources Padua, Archivio di Stato, S. Giustina 553

Article

Fritz Reckow and Edward H. Roesner

In 

4. Practical sources: changes of style about 1100. See Organum

Article

Sources, manuscript: Italian polyphony, c1325–c1420  

Kurt von Fischer and Gianluca D’Agostino

Sources, manuscript: Italian polyphony, c1325–c1420 See also Sources, manuscript I. General. The sources of Italian Trecento music, written between approximately the mid-14th century and 1420 , fall into two main groups: those from Florence or Tuscany and those from northern Italy (namely Padua and Milan/Pavia). A third group of fragmentary sources has more recently been shown to be linked to the papal curia (a centre that was not geographically fixed, moving after the beginning of the schism in 1378 from Rome to central Italy and later through northern

Article

Sources of instrumental ensemble music to 1630  

Warwick Edwards

of instrumental ensemble music. For both manuscript and printed sources the format is normally given, with a note in square brackets if the source is lost or depleted, partbooks being abbreviated S, A, T, B, 5, 6 and so on. Further description of the source is then given as necessary. Entries that concern the work of more than one composer are completed by references to modern editions of all or part of the source, and to literature other than published library catalogues. For single-composer sources, details of this kind will be found under the article on the composer

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2. 15th-century sources from northern Italy (and southern Germany). See Sources, MS §IX 2.

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20. 16th-century German sources of Lutheran music. See Sources, MS §IX 20.