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heard on various occasions the following works are perhaps representative: Tallis’s Spem in alium (probably first heard on Elizabeth’s 40th birthday, 1573 ), Dowland’s His golden locks (sung on Accession Day 1590 to mark the retirement of Sir Henry Lee, the originator of the tilts) and Morley’s collection of madrigals by various authors, The Triumphes of Oriana (RISM 1601 16 , probably heard as part of the May Day celebrations in 1601 ). Of the various instruments that Elizabeth is said to have owned, only the spinet now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London


Paul Doe

revised by David Allinson

Tallis’s monumental 40-voice work, Spem in alium , was inspired by the example of Alessandro Striggio (i). The two composers probably met in London in the summer of 1567 during Striggio’s visit to the English court on diplomatic business (see Fenlon and Keyte). Striggio was completing a tour of European courts during which he had presented his 40-voice Missa sopra Ecco sì beato giorno (with a 60-voice Agnus Dei). Because it seems unlikely that he could have presented the mass openly in Protestant London, scholars have usually suggested that his 40-voice motet Ecce


Paul Frederick Cutter, Brad Maiani, Davitt Moroney, and John Caldwell

by English composers in the remainder of Elizabeth’s reign, the most notable example being Tallis’s great 40-voice Spem in alium , probably dating from the 1570s. On the Continent the history of polyphonic responsories was quite distinct, more complex and less liturgically orientated. Interestingly, one of the earliest full settings was by the Englishman Walter Frye, although this work is unrelated to English liturgical practice. Frye’s Ave regina celorum, mater Regis angelorum (one of the most famous pieces of the late 15th century) sets the complete text of the


Denis Arnold

revised by Anthony F. Carver and Valerio Morucci

tuttis like parts from each side join on the same line. The only important English example of cori spezzati technique is Tallis’s extraordinary Spem in alium for eight five-part choirs, possibly composed for the 40th birthday of Elizabeth I. Tallis takes imitation systematically through all 40 voices as well as creating wave-like antiphony and stunning harmonic effects. In Venice, the practice persisted into the 18th century. Vivaldi wrote not only church music in the idiom but also concertos and solo motets in which the orchestra was divided into groups on opposite


3vv, 1616 Salve virgo florens, 2vv, 1628 Sancta et immaculata, 2vv, 1628 Sancta Maria, 2vv, 1628 Sancta Maria, 3vv, 1628, ed. in Zercher; Sancte Paule apostole, 2vv, 1616 Sancti mei qui in carne, 5vv, 1612, S; Sicut misit me vivens Pater, 3vv, 1616 Si quis vult venire, 2vv, 1628 Spem in alium, 2vv, 1616 Spiritus Sanctus, 2vv, 1628 Spiritus Sanctus, 3vv, 1616 Stella caeli, 2vv, 1628 Stella quam viderunt magi, 5vv, 1612, S; Sub altare Dei, 2vv, 1628 Sub tuum praesidium, 1v, 1628, P; Sub tuum praesidium, 3vv, 1628, ed. in Zercher; Surgens Jesus, 2vv, 1628 Surgens Jesus


Stephen Banfield and Ian Russell

of the late 15th century, an outstanding source preserving a unique virtuoso repertory virtually single-handed and to this day residing in its original home. This style peaked with Fayrfax, Taverner and Sheppard and enjoyed a brief final flowering during Mary Tudor’s Catholic reign ( 1553–8 ) in the antiphons of William Mundy and Tallis (including Gaude gloriosa ), but it can still be sensed in Byrd’s late Latin publications and presumably gave rise, in a different context, to Tallis’s famous 40-part motet, Spem in alium , perhaps even, in the 20th century, to the