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Article

Jan Larue, Eugene K. Wolf, Mark Evan Bonds, Stephen Walsh and Charles Wilson

essentially complete symphonies during the first half of the decade. He had repudiated both his First Symphony op.11 ( 1824 ) and his Reformation Symphony ( 1832 ); allowed only a few performances of the Italian Symphony in the mid-1830s; and delayed completion of the Scottish Symphony for almost a decade in the 1830s and early 40s. Mendelssohn, moreover, was but one of several composers who had taken up the genre of the symphony in the early 1830s only to abandon it. Schumann himself, after repeated unsuccessful attempts, would complete his own First Symphony only in 1841

Article

Chamber symphony (Ger. Kammersymphonie ; It. sinfonia da camera ) A work in symphonic form for chamber orchestra. The title probably originated with Schoenberg’s op.9 for 15 instruments ( 1906 ); his Second Chamber Symphony, begun in the same year, was not completed until 1939 . Meanwhile his example had been followed by Schreker ( 1916 ) and many others. In general the title indicates a work of more ‘serious’ type than the sinfonietta. Analogous concertante compositions include Berg’s Kammerkonzert ( 1923–5 ) and two pieces by Martinů with the title

Article

Suzanne G. Cusick and Jan Larue

and horns, and very commonly in the key of D (for its open-string resonance). During the course of the century the term was increasingly used to designate the concert symphony, while ‘ouvertura’ referred to specifically operatic introductions. Until the end of the century overtures were commonly used as symphonies in formal concerts, often without reference to their operatic origin. Few concert symphonies were used as overtures, however, owing to their greater length and complexity, and to their lower level of excitement. The purposes of the sinfonia or overture – to

Article

Stephen C. Fisher

Sinfonia avanti l’opera (It.: ‘symphony before the opera’ ) An early term for a Sinfonia used to begin an opera, that is, as an Overture , as opposed to one serving to begin a later section of the work or as an instrumental number within an act.

Article

describe a group of primarily operatic composers active in Naples in the 17th and 18th centuries. See under Naples . See also Durante, Francesco Horn, §2(ii): History to c1800: Ensemble and orchestral use Mass, §III, 3(i): 1600–2000: 18th century: Neapolitan Symphony, §I: 18th century: Italy

Article

Eugene K. Wolf

composers there. For example, crescendo passages comparable in virtually every respect with those of Johann Stamitz occur at an earlier date in overtures to operas by Nicolò Jommelli. Ex. 2 Johann Stamitz: Symphony in D, DTB/Wolf D-3, first movement Ex.3 Johann Stamitz: Symphony in D, DTB/Wolf D-2, first movement Ex.1 Johann Stamitz: Symphony in E♭, DTB/Wolf E♭-5a, first movement Riemann also devoted considerable attention to the Mannheim melodic style, delineating a large number of what he termed ‘Mannheimer Manieren’ or Mannheim figures. (The

Article

William Weber

Partch, Cage, Le Monte Young and Glass (including Einstein on the Beach , 1975–6 ); she later became active commissioning works by Europeans such as Goehr and Lutosławski (Symphony no.4, 1988–92 ), as well as at the Salzburg Festival when it began to focus on new music in the 1990s. Bibliography N. Temperley : The Music of the English Parish Church (Cambridge, 1979) N. Kenyon : The BBC Symphony Orchestra: the First Fifty Years, 1930–1980 (London, 1981) J. Aguila : Le domaine musical: Pierre Boulez et vingt ans de création contemporaine (Paris, 1992) K. Forney

Article

Fred Everett Maus

follow the archetype of suffering leading to triumph or redemption (as in Beethoven's symphonies nos.5 and 9). Analogies between music and narrative, or stronger claims that instrumental music can be narrative, raise issues about the relevant description of the events of a piece. Descriptions offered in support of a narrative analogy may remain close to ordinary technical analysis, but often they become anthropomorphic and sometimes, as in Newcomb's account of Mahler's Symphony no.9, musical events may be translated into a detailed, almost novelistic story about

Article

Arnold Whittall

seem at a given point to have a greater concern with continuing a renovated tradition than with radical innovation. So all-inclusive a definition solves many problems, such as the need to decide whether there is a sense in which, while Prokofiev’s ‘Classical’ Symphony is neo-classical, his Fifth and Sixth Symphonies are not. But with many composers, from Berg and Bartók to Lutosławski, Elliott Carter and Davies, it is notably unrewarding to attempt to separate what is innovatory (and a continuation of expressionism) from what is more obviously ‘traditional’. And there

Article

Maria Anna Harley

Princess ( 1915 ), ( iii ) the serenity of nature, as in Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony ( 1808 , where three birds described by Kircher – the nightingale, cuckoo and quail – are imitated) and ( iv ) spiritual jubilation, as in Messiaen’s Messe de la Pentecôte for organ solo ( 1949–50 ). The first three meanings are intertwined; less common significations of birdcalls and songs include ( v ) freedom (Wishart’s Red Bird for tape, 1985 ), ( vi ) mystery (Mahler’s ‘Der Vogel der Nacht’ in Symphony no.3 ( 1893–6 )), and ( vii ) madness (Maxwell Davies’s Eight Songs for

Article

Metre  

Justin London

Rhythm, §I, 4 ). While the notated time signature usually corresponds to the perceived metre, at times it does not. For example, in the Scherzo of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony the notated measures correspond to beats and subdivisions, but not to the perceived bar; here a simple triple time signature is used as a means of notating an extremely rapid compound duple metre ( ex.1 ). Ex.1 Beethoven: Ninth Symphony, Scherzo Metre is usually stable over the course of a piece, but it may change, either explicitly through a change of time signature or other marking (as in

Article

J. Peter Burkholder

texted music may serve to remind the listener of the original words. In vocal music, this may provide commentary on the words being sung, a practice that apparently extends back to at least the 15th century. In instrumental music, it may suggest programmatic interpretations, as in symphonies by Bruckner, Brahms and Mahler. Allusions to instrumental works can evoke the associations they carry, as in Frank Zappa's frequent references to the theme of the television show The Twilight Zone . Allusions to styles or conventions are much more common. Not all changes of style

Article

Christopher Fox

19th-century German lied had aspired, but it was most usually represented in works of the Neue Einfachheit by a re-engagement with the gestural and tonal language of late Romantic German music, by a return to more traditional instrumental groupings, such as the string quartet and symphony orchestra, and, in works involving text, often by the use of specifically German subject matter. Other terms used to categorize this music included ‘Neue Innigkeit’ (new inwardness), ‘New (or Neo-) Romanticism’, ‘New Sensuality’ and ‘New Tonality’. Confusingly, the English term

Article

Nicholas Marston

by the extreme amount of revision and recomposition carried out in the first. In such cases it is usual for the two autographs to be described respectively as Urschrift and Reinschrift . ‘Autograph’ may be used adjectivally, for example in referring to ‘a copy of the “Eroica” Symphony with Beethoven’s autograph corrections’. The term ‘holograph’ is sometimes used to distinguish a manuscript wholly in the hand of its author or composer ( see Holograph ). For the period before 1600 relatively few manuscripts of works wholly or largely in the hand of the composer

Article

Genre  

Jim Samson

Kallberg : ‘The Rhetoric of Genre: Chopin's Nocturne in G minor’, 19CM , 11 (1987–8), 238–61 J. Samson : ‘Chopin and Genre’, MAn , 8 (1989), 213–32 R. Pascall : ‘Genre and the Finale of Brahms's Fourth Symphony’, MAn , 8 (1989), 233–46 C. Goodwin and A. Duranti , eds.: Rethinking Context (Cambridge, 1992) R. Samuels : Mahler's Sixth Symphony: a Study in Semiotics (Cambridge, 1995) See also Theory, theorists, §12: Theory of genres: 16th to 18th centuries Bacon, Roger

Article

Collage  

J. Peter Burkholder

finale of Mozart's Don Giovanni ( 1787 ) has three onstage bands playing a minuet, contredanse and waltz simultaneously. Strauss suggested reminiscence in Ein Heldenleben ( 1897–8 ) by interweaving in counterpoint recollections of themes from his own works. Passages in Mahler's symphonies juxtapose references to folksongs, dances, marches and other popular genres, which some critics have described as collage. In each example, the combination of simultaneous yet distinct streams of music is used to suggest several simultaneous events, whether in real life, imagination

Article

Jim Samson

classical art and the new philology. The practical and ideological force of the canon, the German canon in particular, was already apparent in the 19th century. Practically, it allowed the significant to push into obscurity the only marginally less significant (the Brahms symphony obscures the Bruch symphony), and this authoritarian quality became increasingly pronounced in the early 20th century, as ‘classical’ repertories were placed in a polarized relation to avant-garde and commercial repertories. (The institutionalization of musical scholarship did much to reinforce

Article

Michael J. Schiano

Grundgestalt may be a fragment of the musical surface that subsequently undergoes repetition, variation, development and ‘liquidation’ as the piece unfolds, much like the principal motif of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. It may also generate other aspects of the piece, as, according to Schoenberg, the principal motif of the first movement of Brahms's Third Symphony (F-A♭) may undergo a variation to become the key scheme of the exposition (F major to A major). Conflicting accounts from Schoenberg's students suggest that his notion of the Grundgestalt evolved during

Article

Daniel Heartz

revised by Bruce Alan Brown

masters of the time. Haydn’s acceptance of certain conventions did not prevent his symphonies from being received by his contemporaries as highly original, and so dramatic in nature that they seemed literally to speak. Grétry ( Mémoires , 1789 ) urged them as models for opera composers, and marvelled at Haydn’s unique ability to get so much out of a single motif. In 1806 specific and detailed programmes were published for both Haydn’s Drumroll Symphony (Momigny) and Mozart’s Symphony k 543 (August Apel, in poetic form), dramatizing these works even further. Gerber

Article

Ralph P. Locke

Frauboes , Ferenc Fricsay , Josef Greindl , Helmut Krebs , Hanns Georg Laubenthal , RIAS Chamber Chorus , RIAS Symphony Orchestra , Rita Streich , Heinz Tietjen . Mozart, W.A.: Entfuhrung aus dem Serail (Die) (Abduction from the Seraglio) (Edition Ferenc Fricsay, Vol. 8) (Fricsay) (1949) . audite: 2008. Audio. https://www.naxosmusiclibrary.com/catalogue/item.asp?cid=Audite23.413 Le Desert . Félicien David, composer. Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra, Guido Maria Guida, Bruno Lazzaretti, Gertrud Ottenthal, Olivier Pascalin, St. Hedwig's Cathedral Choir.