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Article

Michael Kunkel and Jürg Stenzl

examples of polyphony written down over the years in a kind of musical diary: the result is a compendium which is also a reminder of his composition studies with Veress. At the same time the work serves as a portrait of Friedrich Hölderlin in the second half of his life, when mental illness made him dependent on others; the late poems, signed with the unexplained pseudonym ‘Scardanelli’, are the source for the choral songs. The facts of Hölderlin’s life, especially the decisive turning point of his retreat at the age of 37 into the tower in Tübingen where he remained

Article

Ryan R. McNutt

( b Inglewood, CA , June 20, 1942 ). American songwriter and producer . As the musical leader of the Beach boys during the 1960s, Wilson penned a series of massively successful hits that expanded the sound palette of radio pop. Though he subsequently struggled with mental illness and drug abuse, a late career revival brought with it recognition as one of the most important popular songwriters of the 20th century. Wilson and his younger brothers Dennis and Carl grew up in Hawthorne, California. Their father Murray Wilson, occasionally abusive, strongly

Article

J. Michele Edwards

departments at Scripps College and, while studying psychology and music ( 1974–79 ), at the University of California, San Diego medical school. With other students she participated in biochemical experiments involving sadomasochism, acid, and mental illness. During this time she gave performances of wordless vocal improvisations at mental institutions, singing with her back to the patients. From 1979 through the early 1980s, she toured internationally as an avant-garde vocalist, performing works by Vinko Globokar and Iannis Xenakis, with whom she had studied, as well as

Article

John Cline

The term “outsider” is, almost by definition, controversial. From Dubuffet to Chusid, it has concurrently carried connotations of both psychological pathologies and an assumption of a purity of expression at the boundaries of culture. The relationship between outsider music and mental illness is apparent from the biographies of the artists Chusid profiles in Songs in the Key of Z: the Curious Universe of Outsider Music ; five of the 20 examples in his book concern musicians whose psychological problems are documented: Joe Meek (paranoid/depressive; murdered his landlady

Article

Michael Hurd

Moore : Maker and Lover of Beauty: Ivor Gurney, Poet and Songwriter (Rickmansworth, Herts., 1976) M. Hurd : The Ordeal of Ivor Gurney (Oxford, 1978) T. Hold : ‘Two Aspects of “Sleep”: a Study in English Song-Writing’, MR , 41 (1980), 26–35 W. Trethowan : ‘Ivor Gurney's Mental Illness’, ML , 62 (1981), 300–09 R.K.R. Thornton , ed.: Ivor Gurney: War Letters (London, 1983) S. Banfield : Sensibility and English Song , 1 (London, 1985), 179–207, 211–13 A. Boden : Stars in a Dark Night (Gloucester, 1986) R.K.R. Thornton , ed.: Ivor Gurney: Collected

Article

Christopher Fox and David Osmond-Smith

pupils of Skryabin and Schoenberg, and by his friendships with Henri Michaux, Pierre Jean Jouve, Paul Eluard and Salvador Dalí. The later works reveal a new preoccupation with an obsessive reiteration of individual sounds, a legacy of the lengthy period of rehabilitation from his illness. Scelsi described how he would spend days repeatedly playing single notes on the piano, developing a new, intensely focussed mode of listening. The multi-movement form of many subsequent pieces can also be heard as an extension of this reiterative exploration – sequences of movements

Article

1902 as Klingsor. Alberich and Beckmesser were his roles at Covent Garden and the Metropolitan, both in 1900 ; he also sang Falstaff in Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor , reported in Kolodin’s history of the house as ‘undelightful’. The last 16 years of his life were plagued by mental illness. He made no known operatic recordings.

Article

Teresa Chylińska

Publishing Company ( 1905 ) and belonged to the group known as Young Poland . During the years 1911 to 1917 he was a magistrate in Kazakhstan, and in 1918 returned to Warsaw where he worked for the Ministry of Justice until 1933 . In his later years he was afflicted by signs of mental illness. Szeluto’s works, considerable in number but variable in quality, were seldom performed during his lifetime. In the years leading up to World War I he became known mostly as an accomplished composer of songs and piano miniatures. Despite there being some under-developed aspects

Article

Alistair Hinton

music. A widely read man of profound intellect who never took any repertory for granted, he often wrote copious notes about pieces; he even arrived at one recording session clutching his substantial essay on Chopin's G minor Ballade. During the 1970s he suffered increasingly from mental illness which was eventually diagnosed as schizophrenia. The most outstanding achievement of his final years, when his condition was largely stabilized, was his recording and performance of Sorabji's massive Opus clavicembalisticum . To hold an entire audience's attention throughout more

Article

Stetson Kennedy

revised by Ronald D. Cohen

14, 1912 ; d New York, NY , Oct 3, 1967 ). American folksinger and songwriter . Guthrie was born into a middle-class family, but his life became increasingly chaotic following his father’s economic difficulties during the 1920s and his mother’s worsening physical and mental illnesses due to Huntington’s chorea (Huntington’s disease). In 1929 he moved to Pampa, Texas, to live with relatives. There he began playing the guitar and writing songs, and performed in a local trio. He married Mary Jennings in 1933 , and three years later took to the road. He ended

Article

Lionel Carley, Robert Anderson and Anthony Payne

in the coda – fanfares in B against a tonality of D – also show a new departure. Delius’s next choral and orchestral work, the incidental music to Flecker’s Hassan , was the last music that he was able to write in his own hand. Still his creative powers remained unaffected by his illness, and the atmospheric choruses and interludes contain some of his best work, including the Serenade, which quickly became a popular favourite. Delius’s last choral work, the Songs of Farewell , was completed in collaboration with Fenby in 1930 . These powerfully concentrated and exultant

Article

Paul Griffiths

Other factors would have been his work on an outline of his composition methods, Technique de mon langage musical , and the extraordinarily gifted circle of students that was gathering around him, among them Boulez, Serge Nigg and Yvonne Loriod. His wife had by now succumbed to illness and entered a sanatorium, where she remained in steadily diminishing health until her death in April 1959 . During this difficult period Loriod, an outstanding pianist, became the focus of a love that could be expressed only in music: in the Visions de l’Amen ( 1943 ) he wrote for

Article

Andrew Flory

commercial success with duet partner Roberta Flack, with whom he recorded “You’ve Got a Friend” ( 1971 ), “Where Is the Love” ( 1972 ), and “The Closer I Get to You” ( 1978 ). Roberta Flack & Donny Hathaway ( 1972 ) was the most successful album of his career. Hathaway battled mental illness, which caused a decrease in output during the late 1970s and contributed to his suicide in 1979 . Bibliography Obituary, New York Times (15 Jan 1979)

Article

Carmen Ottner

honour previously given to Bruckner and Marx), the title of Hofrat, and the Beethoven Prize of the Prussian Academy, Berlin. His private life however presents a darker picture: his father's financial irregularities, which forced the family to move from Pressburg to Vienna; the mental illness of his first wife Karoline (murdered in 1942 as part of the Nazi euthanasia operation) and the death of his first child Emma shortly after her birth. Research into his life and work and the performance of his compositions has been encouraged since 1951 by the Franz-Schmidt

Article

Bálint Vázsonyi

Dohnányi returned to the Budapest Academy in 1928 as head of the piano and composition master classes. In 1931 he was appointed musical director of the Hungarian Radio and in 1934 director of the Academy once again. His manifold commitments at home and several prolonged illnesses in the 1930s led to the decline of his international concert career, except for occasional tours. From 1939 much of his time was devoted to the fight against growing Nazi influences. By 1941 he had resigned his directorial post at the Academy, rather than submit to the anti-Jewish

Article

Peter Franklin

Heinrich Conried, director of the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, before personal tragedy struck in the summer of 1907 . After Mahler's return with Alma from a conducting engagement in Rome, their two daughters (who had stayed behind with their English governess) both succumbed to illness. Anna soon recovered, but Maria died from a combination of scarlet fever and diphtheria on 12 July 1907 . Alma and her mother both needed medical attention after the removal of Maria's body from the Wörthersee villa. Mahler, after a routine examination by the doctor attending them

Article

Jennifer Doctor, Judith LeGrove, Paul Banks, Heather Wiebe and Philip Brett

n, and the bullying (of other boys, not himself) outraged his always incendiary sense of justice. He felt keenly his first separation from home. One outlet was intensely passionate letters to his mother, another talk of suicide in his diary, yet another lapsing into psychosomatic illness, an involuntary defence that continued as a safety valve throughout his life. The music master eventually came round, at least to the extent of performing his Bagatelle for violin, viola and piano in a school concert in March 1930 . But the family allowed him to leave after two