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date: 01 March 2021


  • Ian D. Bent,
  • David W. Hughes,
  • Robert C. Provine,
  • Richard Rastall,
  • Anne Kilmer,
  • David Hiley,
  • Janka Szendrei,
  • Thomas B. Payne,
  • Margaret Bent
  •  and Geoffrey Chew


A visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers.

This article includes a discussion of notation in society (§II), subdivided into its primary types, which are considered with reference to various notational systems. Other specialized aspects of notation are considered in separate entries: Braille notation; Cheironomy; Ekphonetic notation; Pitch nomenclature; Shape-note hymnody; Solmization; Tablature; and Tonic Sol-fa. For non-Western notational systems see, in particular, China, People’s Republic of, §II, China, People’s Republic of, §IV; Indonesia; and Japan, §III, 4. Other related entries on technical subjects include Conducting; Improvisation; Mode; Psychology of music; Scale; and Tuning.

Whereas Western notation is considered as such in §III, a discussion of musical documents as sources – their physical make-up and production, their format, the layout and presentation of the music, the ordering of their contents – will be found in ...

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Verdun, Bibliothèque Municipale
Reading, University, Music Library
Music Review
Cambrai, Médiathèque Municipale
The English Madrigal School, rev. as The English Madrigalists
M. Gerbert: Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum (St Blasien, 1784/R, 3/1931)
Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek
Current Musicology
Paris, Schola Cantorum
Die Musikforschung
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana
Siena, Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati
Musical Opinion
Studien zur Musikwissenschaft
Montpellier, Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire, Section Médecine
Paris, Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève
Hereford, Cathedral Library
Pelplin, Wyzsze Seminarium Duchowne, Biblioteka
Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Acta musicologica
Revista de musicología
Bulletin of the American Musicological Society
Studia musicologica Academiae scientiarum hungaricae
Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Einsiedeln, Benedikterkloster, Musikbibliothek
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Journal of Musicological Research
Oxford, Bodleian Library
London, British Library
Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Musiksammlung
Archiv für Musikwissenschaft
Bratislava, Archív Mesta Bratislavy
Klosterneuburg, Augustiner-Chorherrenstift, Stiftsbibliothek
Epinal, Bibliothèque Nationale
Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft
Journal of Music Theory
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
International Musicological Society: Congress Report [1930-]
Musicological Studies and Documents
Etudes grégoriennes
The New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1954-90)
Budapest, Országos Széchényi Könyvtár
Padua, Duomo, Biblioteca Capitolare, Curia Vescovile
Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft
Das Musikwerk
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, rev. 2/1998 by L. Treitler)
Monumenta monodica medii aevi
Musica disciplina
Perugia, Biblioteca Comunale Augusta
Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale
Chieti, Biblioteca della Curia Arcivescovile e Archivio Capitolare
Leipzig, Karl-Marx-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Bibliotheca Albertina
Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana
Early Music
Schweizerische Musikzeitung/Revue musicale suisse
St Omer, Bibliothèque Municipale
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Perspectives of New Music
Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie
Augsburg, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsbibliothek
Modena, Duomo, Biblioteca e Archivio Capitolare
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi
Prague, Národní Muzeum
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Seville, Institución Colombina
Aachen, Domarchiv (Stiftsarchiv)
Music & Letters
Valenciennes, Bibliothèque Municipale
Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale
Journal of the International Folk Music Council
Dresden, Sächsische Staatsoper, Notenbibliothek [in D-Dl]
Budapest, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Egyetemi Könyvtár
Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, sezione Musica
Chantilly, Musée Condé
Fontes artis musicae
St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Handschriftenabteilung
Wrocław, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Biblioteka Uniwersytecka
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Handschriftensammlung
Bari, Biblioteca Capitolare
Reims, Maîtrise de la Cathédrale
Collectanea historiae musicae (1953-66)
Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine
Cologny-Geneva, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana
Graz, Universitätsbibliothek
Muzïkal 'nïy sovremennik
Linz, Bundesstaatliche Studienbibliothek
Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare
Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana e Biblioteca Arcivescovile
Prague, Národní Knihovna, Hudenbí Oddělení
see SMH
M. Mersenne: Harmonie universelle
Anuario musical
Durham, Cathedral Church, Dean and Chapter Library
Journal of Musicology
Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch
Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare
Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
International Musical Society: Congress Report [II-IV, 1906-11]
Warsaw, Biblioteka Narodowa
Vienna, Schottenabtei, Musikarchiv
Österreichische Musikzeitschrift
Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek
Prague, Památník Národního Písemnictví, Knihovna
Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare
Brno, Archiv města Brna
Trier, Stadtbibliothek
London, Lambeth Palace Library
Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria
Cortona, Biblioteca Comunale e dell'Accademia Etrusca
Güssing, Franziskaner Kloster
Revue de musicologie
Journal of Research in Music Education
Dijon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Gesellschaft für Musikforschung: Kongress-Bericht [1950-]
Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek
Corpus scriptorum de musica (Rome, later Stuttgart, 1950-)
Journal of the Viola da Gamba Society of America
R.M.A. [Royal Musical Association] Research Chronicle
J.G. Walther: Musicalisches Lexicon, oder Musicalische Bibliothec
Kraków, Archiwum i Biblioteka Krakowskiej Kapituły Katedralnej
Paléographie musicale
Toledo, Catedral, Archivo y Biblioteca Capítulares
Neue Zeitschrift für Musik
Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Abteilung Handschriften, Nachlässe, Alte Drucke
Monza, Parrocchia di S Giovanni Battista, Biblioteca Capitolare
C.-E.-H. de Coussemaker: Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series (Paris, 1864-76/R, 2/1908, ed. U. Moser)
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, 1950/R)
Prague, Pražská Metropolitní Kapitula
Musical Quarterly
Musical Times
Pistoia, Biblioteca Comunale Forteguerriana
Utrecht, Universiteit Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek
C. Burney: A General History of Music from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period (London, 1776-89); ed. F. Mercer (London, 1935/R) [p. nos. refer to this edn]
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning
Monthly Musical Record
Early Music History
Revue belge de musicologie
The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek
Angers, Bibliothèque Municipale