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date: 12 April 2021


  • Ian D. Bent,
  • David W. Hughes,
  • Robert C. Provine,
  • Richard Rastall,
  • Anne Kilmer,
  • David Hiley,
  • Janka Szendrei,
  • Thomas B. Payne,
  • Margaret Bent
  •  and Geoffrey Chew


A visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers.

This article includes a discussion of notation in society (§II), subdivided into its primary types, which are considered with reference to various notational systems. Other specialized aspects of notation are considered in separate entries: Braille notation; Cheironomy; Ekphonetic notation; Pitch nomenclature; Shape-note hymnody; Solmization; Tablature; and Tonic Sol-fa. For non-Western notational systems see, in particular, China, People’s Republic of, §II, China, People’s Republic of, §IV; Indonesia; and Japan, §III, 4. Other related entries on technical subjects include Conducting; Improvisation; Mode; Psychology of music; Scale; and Tuning.

Whereas Western notation is considered as such in §III, a discussion of musical documents as sources – their physical make-up and production, their format, the layout and presentation of the music, the ordering of their contents – will be found in ...

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Pelplin, Wyzsze Seminarium Duchowne, Biblioteka
Acta musicologica
Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana
Studien zur Musikwissenschaft
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, rev. 2/1998 by L. Treitler)
Perugia, Biblioteca Comunale Augusta
C.-E.-H. de Coussemaker: Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series (Paris, 1864-76/R, 2/1908, ed. U. Moser)
Leipzig, Karl-Marx-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Bibliotheca Albertina
Monumenta monodica medii aevi
Bratislava, Archív Mesta Bratislavy
Reims, Maîtrise de la Cathédrale
Revue belge de musicologie
J.G. Walther: Musicalisches Lexicon, oder Musicalische Bibliothec
Prague, Národní Knihovna, Hudenbí Oddělení
St Omer, Bibliothèque Municipale
Padua, Duomo, Biblioteca Capitolare, Curia Vescovile
Trier, Stadtbibliothek
Seville, Institución Colombina
Chantilly, Musée Condé
Journal of Musicology
Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie
Musical Times
Budapest, Országos Széchényi Könyvtár
Musical Opinion
R.M.A. [Royal Musical Association] Research Chronicle
Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek
Fontes artis musicae
Kraków, Archiwum i Biblioteka Krakowskiej Kapituły Katedralnej
Angers, Bibliothèque Municipale
Paléographie musicale
Early Music
Klosterneuburg, Augustiner-Chorherrenstift, Stiftsbibliothek
Paris, Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève
Schweizerische Musikzeitung/Revue musicale suisse
Music & Letters
Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft
Prague, Pražská Metropolitní Kapitula
London, British Library
Montpellier, Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire, Section Médecine
Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, 1950/R)
Cologny-Geneva, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana
Oxford, Bodleian Library
Cortona, Biblioteca Comunale e dell'Accademia Etrusca
Einsiedeln, Benedikterkloster, Musikbibliothek
Musical Quarterly
Augsburg, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsbibliothek
Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, sezione Musica
Musica disciplina
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Musicological Studies and Documents
Modena, Duomo, Biblioteca e Archivio Capitolare
Cambrai, Médiathèque Municipale
Bulletin of the American Musicological Society
Neue Zeitschrift für Musik
Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Musiksammlung
Dijon, Bibliothèque Municipale
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Pistoia, Biblioteca Comunale Forteguerriana
Wrocław, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Biblioteka Uniwersytecka
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Journal of the International Folk Music Council
Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning
Prague, Národní Muzeum
Österreichische Musikzeitschrift
Archiv für Musikwissenschaft
Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare
Valenciennes, Bibliothèque Municipale
Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek
Epinal, Bibliothèque Nationale
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Brno, Archiv města Brna
M. Gerbert: Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum (St Blasien, 1784/R, 3/1931)
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Dresden, Sächsische Staatsoper, Notenbibliothek [in D-Dl]
Durham, Cathedral Church, Dean and Chapter Library
Revista de musicología
Collectanea historiae musicae (1953-66)
Journal of Musicological Research
Paris, Schola Cantorum
The New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1954-90)
Monza, Parrocchia di S Giovanni Battista, Biblioteca Capitolare
Etudes grégoriennes
Anuario musical
Utrecht, Universiteit Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek
Journal of the Viola da Gamba Society of America
Linz, Bundesstaatliche Studienbibliothek
Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Prague, Památník Národního Písemnictví, Knihovna
Music Review
London, Lambeth Palace Library
Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch
Perspectives of New Music
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Monthly Musical Record
Die Musikforschung
Reading, University, Music Library
Siena, Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Handschriftensammlung
Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana e Biblioteca Arcivescovile
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
Toledo, Catedral, Archivo y Biblioteca Capítulares
Vienna, Schottenabtei, Musikarchiv
The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek
Journal of Music Theory
Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Abteilung Handschriften, Nachlässe, Alte Drucke
Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale
Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare
see SMH
M. Mersenne: Harmonie universelle
International Musicological Society: Congress Report [1930-]
Aachen, Domarchiv (Stiftsarchiv)
Warsaw, Biblioteka Narodowa
Verdun, Bibliothèque Municipale
Das Musikwerk
St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Handschriftenabteilung
Muzïkal 'nïy sovremennik
Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria
Graz, Universitätsbibliothek
Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek
Journal of Research in Music Education
Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine
Gesellschaft für Musikforschung: Kongress-Bericht [1950-]
Budapest, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Egyetemi Könyvtár
Early Music History
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Chieti, Biblioteca della Curia Arcivescovile e Archivio Capitolare
Corpus scriptorum de musica (Rome, later Stuttgart, 1950-)
Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale
Hereford, Cathedral Library
The English Madrigal School, rev. as The English Madrigalists
Güssing, Franziskaner Kloster
Current Musicology
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi
Studia musicologica Academiae scientiarum hungaricae
Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana
Bari, Biblioteca Capitolare
Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare