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date: 17 May 2021


  • Ian D. Bent,
  • David W. Hughes,
  • Robert C. Provine,
  • Richard Rastall,
  • Anne Kilmer,
  • David Hiley,
  • Janka Szendrei,
  • Thomas B. Payne,
  • Margaret Bent
  •  and Geoffrey Chew


A visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers.

This article includes a discussion of notation in society (§II), subdivided into its primary types, which are considered with reference to various notational systems. Other specialized aspects of notation are considered in separate entries: Braille notation; Cheironomy; Ekphonetic notation; Pitch nomenclature; Shape-note hymnody; Solmization; Tablature; and Tonic Sol-fa. For non-Western notational systems see, in particular, China, People’s Republic of, §II, China, People’s Republic of, §IV; Indonesia; and Japan, §III, 4. Other related entries on technical subjects include Conducting; Improvisation; Mode; Psychology of music; Scale; and Tuning.

Whereas Western notation is considered as such in §III, a discussion of musical documents as sources – their physical make-up and production, their format, the layout and presentation of the music, the ordering of their contents – will be found in ...

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C.-E.-H. de Coussemaker: Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series (Paris, 1864-76/R, 2/1908, ed. U. Moser)
Archiv für Musikwissenschaft
Paléographie musicale
Modena, Duomo, Biblioteca e Archivio Capitolare
Dijon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Paris, Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève
Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale
Muzïkal 'nïy sovremennik
Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft
Klosterneuburg, Augustiner-Chorherrenstift, Stiftsbibliothek
Reims, Maîtrise de la Cathédrale
Bulletin of the American Musicological Society
Utrecht, Universiteit Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Monthly Musical Record
Bari, Biblioteca Capitolare
International Musical Society: Congress Report [II-IV, 1906-11]
Aachen, Domarchiv (Stiftsarchiv)
Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek
Revista de musicología
International Musicological Society: Congress Report [1930-]
The English Madrigal School, rev. as The English Madrigalists
Pistoia, Biblioteca Comunale Forteguerriana
Budapest, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Egyetemi Könyvtár
Kraków, Archiwum i Biblioteka Krakowskiej Kapituły Katedralnej
Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek
M. Mersenne: Harmonie universelle
Vienna, Schottenabtei, Musikarchiv
Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria
Schweizerische Musikzeitung/Revue musicale suisse
Journal of Music Theory
Hereford, Cathedral Library
M. Gerbert: Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum (St Blasien, 1784/R, 3/1931)
Collectanea historiae musicae (1953-66)
Seville, Institución Colombina
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, 1950/R)
Prague, Pražská Metropolitní Kapitula
Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana e Biblioteca Arcivescovile
R.M.A. [Royal Musical Association] Research Chronicle
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Einsiedeln, Benedikterkloster, Musikbibliothek
Neue Zeitschrift für Musik
Prague, Národní Muzeum
Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft
Warsaw, Biblioteka Narodowa
Journal of the International Folk Music Council
Etudes grégoriennes
Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare
London, Lambeth Palace Library
Journal of the Viola da Gamba Society of America
Chieti, Biblioteca della Curia Arcivescovile e Archivio Capitolare
see SMH
Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, sezione Musica
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Handschriftensammlung
Musica disciplina
Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare
Musical Quarterly
Journal of Musicology
Cologny-Geneva, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana
J.G. Walther: Musicalisches Lexicon, oder Musicalische Bibliothec
Leipzig, Karl-Marx-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Bibliotheca Albertina
Epinal, Bibliothèque Nationale
Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie
Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Das Musikwerk
Trier, Stadtbibliothek
Paris, Schola Cantorum
Augsburg, Universität Augsburg, Universitätsbibliothek
Graz, Universitätsbibliothek
Dresden, Sächsische Staatsoper, Notenbibliothek [in D-Dl]
Die Musikforschung
Musicological Studies and Documents
Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Abteilung Handschriften, Nachlässe, Alte Drucke
Montpellier, Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire, Section Médecine
Toledo, Catedral, Archivo y Biblioteca Capítulares
Österreichische Musikzeitschrift
Cambrai, Médiathèque Municipale
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Musiksammlung
London, British Library
Anuario musical
St Omer, Bibliothèque Municipale
Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale
Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale
Music & Letters
Siena, Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, rev. 2/1998 by L. Treitler)
Perugia, Biblioteca Comunale Augusta
The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek
Journal of Musicological Research
Padua, Duomo, Biblioteca Capitolare, Curia Vescovile
Monza, Parrocchia di S Giovanni Battista, Biblioteca Capitolare
Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana
Brno, Archiv města Brna
Early Music History
Wrocław, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Biblioteka Uniwersytecka
Fontes artis musicae
Revue de musicologie
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
Music Review
Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare
Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek
Chantilly, Musée Condé
Valenciennes, Bibliothèque Municipale
Güssing, Franziskaner Kloster
Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine
Linz, Bundesstaatliche Studienbibliothek
Pelplin, Wyzsze Seminarium Duchowne, Biblioteka
Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana
Studien zur Musikwissenschaft
Bratislava, Archív Mesta Bratislavy
Verdun, Bibliothèque Municipale
Musical Times
Studia musicologica Academiae scientiarum hungaricae
St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Handschriftenabteilung
Perspectives of New Music
Oxford, Bodleian Library
Revue belge de musicologie
Gesellschaft für Musikforschung: Kongress-Bericht [1950-]
Angers, Bibliothèque Municipale
Cortona, Biblioteca Comunale e dell'Accademia Etrusca
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning
Prague, Národní Knihovna, Hudenbí Oddělení
Prague, Památník Národního Písemnictví, Knihovna
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
Monumenta monodica medii aevi
Reading, University, Music Library
Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch
Musical Opinion
The New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1954-90)
C. Burney: A General History of Music from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period (London, 1776-89); ed. F. Mercer (London, 1935/R) [p. nos. refer to this edn]
Early Music
Corpus scriptorum de musica (Rome, later Stuttgart, 1950-)
Durham, Cathedral Church, Dean and Chapter Library
Budapest, Országos Széchényi Könyvtár
Acta musicologica
Journal of Research in Music Education
Current Musicology