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date: 01 March 2021


  • Kurt Reinhard,
  • Martin Stokes
  •  and Ursula Reinhard


Republic of (Turk. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti). Country in the Middle East. With a total area of 779,452 km², 95% of the republic is located in Asia Minor (Asia), while 5% is in eastern Thrace (Europe). The population of 65·73 million (2000 estimate) is 99% Muslim, the majority being Sunnis.

Kurt Reinhard and Martin Stokes

The music practised in what is now Turkey has manifold roots. For the pre-Islamic period see Anatolia. Following the Arab conquests of the region in the 8th century, Near Eastern music history became closely intertwined with that of the Arabs and Persians (see Arab music. In the 11th century, groups of Turks made their way westwards from Central Asia, occupying virtually all of Anatolia and founding the Seljuk dynasty. The Turks’ adoption of Islam contributed to a cultural metamorphosis. The development of Turkish art music was further affected by impulses from Persian and, above all, Byzantine culture. Over the centuries, urban and rural Turkish music forms disseminated through the Near East and Balkans; this is especially evident in the present-day musical practice of rural Greece....

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Istanbul, Üniversite Kütüphanesi
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Revue d'histoire et de critique musicales
Asian Music
A. Lavignac and L. de La Laurencie, eds.: Encyclopédie de la musique et dictionnaire du Conservatoire
London, British Library